First Spiritual Inheritors of the Prophet
Historically speaking, the
Naqshbandi tariqat can be traced back to the first of the Rightly-Guided
Caliphs, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (r), who succeeds the Prophet (s) in his
knowledge and in his role of guiding the Muslim community. Allah said in
the Holy Qur'an "He was the second of two in the cave, and he said to
his friend: 'do not be sad, for God is with us'" [9:40]. Of him the
Prophet (s) said, "If I had taken to myself a beloved friend, I would
have taken Abu Bakr as my beloved friend; but he is my brother and my
What distinguishes the
Naqshbandi school from other Sufi orders was the fact that it took its
foundations and principles from the teachings and example of six bright
stars in the firmament of the Prophet (s). These great figures were: Abu
Bakr as-Siddiq, Salman al-Farisi, Jacfar as-Sadiq, Bayazid
Tayfur al-Bistami, cAbdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani, and Muhammad
Baha'uddin Uwaysi al-Bukhari, known as Shah Naqshband--the eponymous
Imam of the tariqat.
Behind the word "Naqshband"
stand two ideas: naqsh which means "engraving" and suggests
engraving the name of Allah in the heart, and band which means
"bond" and indicates the link between the individual and his Creator.
This means that the Naqshbandi follower has to practice his prayers and
obligations according to the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet
(s) and to keep the presence and love of Allah alive in his heart
through a personal experience of the link between himself and his Lord.
Besides Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, who
are these stars in the firmament of the Prophet (s)? One of them was
Salman al-Farisi (r). His origin was Isfahan in Persia and he was the
one who advised the Muslims to dig a trench in the battle of Ahzab.
After the Muslims seized al-Mada'in, the capital city of Persia, he was
made Prince and governor of that city and remained there until his
Another star was Jacfar
as-Sadiq. A descendant of the Prophet (s) on his father's side and of
Abu Bakr (r) on his mother's, he rejected all positions of honor in
favor of retreat and spiritual learning and practice. He was called "The
Inheritor of the Prophetic Station (Maqam an-Nubuwwa) and the
Inheritor of the Truthful Station (Maqam as-Siddiqiyya).
The oldest recorded occurrence
of the term safa was in reference to his student, Jabir ibn
ayyan, in the middle of the second Hijri century. He was a mufassir
al-Qur'an or master in exegesis, a scholar of hadith, and one of
the greatest mujtahids (qualified to give legal decisions) in
Madinah. His Tafsir is partially preserved in Sulami's haqa'iq at-tafsir.
Layth ibn Sacd, one of the most reliable transmitters of
prophetic traditions, witnessed Jacfar's miraculous powers as
the latter was able to ask for anything, and God would grant it to him
on the spot.
Another star was Bayazid Tayfur
al-Bistami whose grandfather was a Zoroastrian. Bayazid made a detailed
study of the statutes of Islamic law (sharica)
and practiced a strict regimen of self-denial. All his life he was
assiduous in the practice of his religious obligations. He urged his
students (murids) to put their efforts in the hands of God and he
encouraged them to accept a sincere and pure doctrine of tawhid,
knowledge of the Oneness of God. This doctrine, he said, imposes five
obligations on the sincere:
To keep obligations
according to the Qur'an and Sunnah;
To always speak the truth;
To keep the heart free from
To avoid forbidden food
To shun innovation
Bayazid said that the ultimate
goal of the Sufis is to know God in this world, to reach His Divine
Presence, and to see Him in the Hereafter. To that effect he added:
"There are special servants of Allah who, if Allah veiled them from His
vision in Paradise, would have implored Him to bring them out of
Paradise as the inhabitants of the Fire implore Him to escape from
Yet another star in the
firmament of the Prophet (s), was cAbdul Khaliq
al-Ghujdawani, who was born in the village of Ghujdawan, near Bukhara in
present-day Uzbekistan. He was raised and buried there. He studied
Qur'an and the Islamic sciences of both external and internal knowledge
until he reached a high station of purity. He then traveled to Damascus
where he established a school from which many students graduated and
went on to become masters of fiqh and hadith as well as
spirituality in their time, both in the regions of Central Asia and in
the Middle East.
`Abdul Khaliq continued the work
of his predecessors by formulating the dhikr (remembrance of God)
passed down from the Prophet (s) according to the Sunnah. In his letters
he set down the code of conduct (adab) that the students of the
Naqshbandiyya were expected to follow.
The Messenger of God,
Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah
"How can people in this world
grasp his reality?
They, who are asleep and pleased by dreams from him.
How beautiful what has been said about his reality!
Your light is everything and everything else is particles.
O Prophet, your soldiers in every time are your Companions!"
The Shaykhs of the Naqshbandi Order are known as
the Golden Chain because of their connection to the highest, most
perfect human being, Muhammad
, the First to be created, the First to be mentioned, the First to be
When Allah ordered the Pen to write, it asked,
"What shall I write?" and Allah said, "Write 'La Ilaha Ill-Allah.'"
The Pen wrote "La Ilaha Ill-Allah" for seventy-thousand of
Allah's years and then it stopped. One of Allah's days is equal to one
thousand of our years. Then Allah ordered it to write again, and the Pen
asked, "What shall I write?" and Allah answered, "Write Muhammadun
Rasul-Allah." And the Pen said, "O Allah, who is this Muhammad that
You have put Your Name next to his name?" Allah said, "You must know
that if it were not for Muhammad I would not have created anything in
Creation." So the Pen wrote Muhammadun Rasul-Allah for another
When did Allah order the Pen to Write? When did
the Pen Write? When did that writing of "La ilaha ill-Allah
Muhammadun Rasul-Allah" occur? No one knows. The mention of the name
of the Prophet
by Allah, Almighty and Exalted, is something which happened before the
creation of anything, and its reality occurred in pre-Eternity. That is
the reason the Prophet
mentioned, "kuntu Nabiyyan wa adamu bayni-l-ma'i wa-t-tin" - "I
was a Prophet when Adam was between water and clay."
He is the Perfect Human Being. He is the Seal of
all prophets and messengers. What can a weak servant say in order to
honor the Master of Messengers? If it were not for him, no one would
ever have known Allah, Almighty and Exalted. Never would the fabric of
the universe have been woven into existence as it has been woven.
Therefore the pen cannot describe the most perfect of the Perfect human
beings, the Master of Masters, the King of Kings, the Sultan of Sultans
of the Divine Presence.
He is the Heart of the Divine Presence. He is
the Heart of the Unique Essence. He is the Sign for Oneness and the Sign
of Oneness. He is known as the Secret of All Secrets. He is the only one
addressed by Allah Almighty and Exalted, because he is the only one
considered Responsible in the Presence of Allah who said, "Were it not
for him I would not have created any of My creation." All of the
creation was given to the Prophet
as a divine gesture of honor from Allah, Almighty and Exalted. Therefore
is responsible for that creation which is his honor and his Trust. For
that reason he is the only one to be addressed in the Divine Presence.
The singular status of the Prophet
is the heart and the Essence of the phrase of tawheed [La
ilaha ill-Allah Muhammadun Rasul-Allah] and the foundation of
Sufism. The Prophet
is the "one soul" mentioned in the Qur'anic verse, "[O Mankind] Your
creation and your resurrection is in no wise but as an individual soul"
[31:28]. It is also the Prophet
who is the "single life" represented in the verse, "If anyone slew a
person... it would be as if he slew the whole people: And if anyone
saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people."
, moreover, referred to his responsibility in the hadith: a`malakum
tu`radu `alayya kulla yawm, "All your actions
are shown to me every day. If they are good, I pray for you; if they are
bad, I ask Allah's forgiveness for you." That means that the Prophet
is the one who is responsible towards God for his Community. That is
why, as we said, he is "the only to be spoken to." It is the meaning of
Intercession. Allah refers to this intercession in the verse, "If
they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee
and asked Allah's forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked
forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed
Oft-Returning, Most Merciful" [4:64].
His honorable biography and his blessed speeches
and actions can never be encompassed in a book. But we can say that he
is Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim and that his
lineage goes back to Ibrahim
. He was born in Makkah al-Mukarrama on a Monday, the 12th of Rabi`ul
Awwal, 570 CE, in the Year of the Elephant. His mother, Sayyida Amina,
when she gave birth to him, saw a light coming from her that turned all
darkness into light as far as Persia. When he was born, the first thing
he did after coming from his mother's womb was to fall into prostration.
His father died before he was born. He was nursed by Thuayba and then by
Halima as-Sa`diyya, with whom he stayed for four years.
While returning with him from a visit to his
uncles in Madinat al-Munawwara (at that time Yathrib), his mother fell
sick and died. He was six years old. His grandfather raised him for two
years, until he also died. Orphaned three times, he went to live with
his uncle, Abu Talib. Allah Almighty and Exalted ordered the Angel of
the Trumpet, Israfil
to accompany him at all times until the age of eleven years. Then Allah
to accompany him and to look after him and to keep him in his
safekeeping, and to send to his heart heavenly and spiritual Powers.
He traveled with his uncle to Sham (Damascus).
On their way they passed by Basra where a monk named Buhaira, living in
a monastery nearby, told his uncle, "Take him back, it will be safer for
him." At that time he was twelve years old. Years later he traveled
again to Sham with Maysara, to trade on behalf of the Lady Khadija
. They were very successful. Maysara told Khadija about his miraculous
powers and his business acumen and she became interested in him. She
proposed marriage and he accepted her offer. He married her when he was
25 years of age and she was forty.
He was known throughout his tribe as as-Sadiq
al-Amin, the Truthful and Trustworthy One. When he was 35 years of
age, the Quraish Tribe was renovating the House of Allah, the Ka'aba.
They disputed among themselves as to who should put the sacred Black
Stone (hajaru-l-aswad) in its place. They finally came to an
agreement that the most trustworthy person should replace it, and that
person was the Prophet
At that time inspirations and revelations were
coming to his heart. He was always in a state of spiritual vision and
insight, but he was not authorized to speak about it. He preferred to be
alone and used a cave in a mountain called al-Hira for contemplation and
meditation. He sought seclusion as the means to reach the Divine
Presence of Allah Almighty and Exalted.
He avoided all kinds of attachment, even with
his family. He was always in meditation and contemplation, afloat on the
Ocean of the Dhikr of the Heart. He disconnected himself completely from
everything, until there appeared to him the light of Allah Almighty and
Exalted, which graced him with the condition of complete intimacy and
happiness. That intimacy allowed the mirror of revelation to increase in
purity and brightness, until he attained to the highest state of
perfection, where he observed the dawning of a new creation. The
primordial signs of beauty shone forth to spread and decorate the
universe. Trees, stones, earth, the stars, the sun, the moon, the
clouds, wind, rain, and animals would greet him in perfect Arabic speech
and say, "as-Salam 'alayka Ya Rasul-Allah" -- "Peace be upon
You, O Prophet of God."
At forty years of age, when standing on the
Mountain of Hira, there appeared on the horizon a figure he did not
recognize, who said to him, "O Muhammad, I am Jibril and You are the
Prophet of God whom He has sent to this nation." Then he handed him a
piece of silk which was decorated with jewels. He put it in his hand and
told him, "Read." He asked "What am I to read?" He hugged the Prophet
and told him, "Read." He again said, "What shall I read?" He hugged him
again and said,
"Read, in the name of Your Lord, who
Created man out of a blood-clot,
Read, and thy Lord is Most bountiful
Who has taught with the Pen,
Taught man what he knew not!" [96:1-5]
Then he ordered him to climb down the mountain
to the plains below; he placed him on a large white stone and gave him
two green robes. Then Jibril
hit the earth with his feet. Immediately a spring poured forth and the
angel made ablutions in it and ordered him to do the same. Then Jibril
took a handful of water and threw it on the face of the Prophet
. Sufi saints say that the water he threw was a sign that the Prophet
was granted authority to spread to human beings the Knowledge of the
Secrets of Allah's Divine Presence, either by physical means or by
spiritual means. Then he observed two cycles of prayer (rak'ats) and
told the Prophet
, "This is the way to worship," and he disappeared.
returned to Makkah and told his wife all that had occurred. She believed
him and she was the first Muslim. Then she went with the Prophet
to Waraqah bin Nawfal, her cousin, who was considered a person
knowledgeable in spirituality. The Prophet
told him what happened. He believed him and he was the first man to
believe in the Prophet
. He said, "This is the Holy Spirit who descended on Moses
." He said, "Would that I be alive when your people expel you from
Makkah!" The prophet asked, "Are my people going to put me out of
Makkah?" He said, "Yes, that is what is written."
Then Abu Bakr
became a believer and he was followed by Ali
. In public the Prophet
gave guidance needed for daily life, and in private he would give the
special advice needed for attaining the state of Ihsan
(perfect good character). That is why Abu Huraira
said in an authentic hadith mentioned in Bukhari, "The Prophet
has poured into my heart two kinds of knowledge: one I have spread to
people and the other, if I were to share it, they would cut my throat."
The knowledge Abu Huraira referred to is the
hidden, secret knowledge that the Prophet
gave to his Companions. He did not authorize them to spread that
knowledge because it is the secret knowledge of the heart. From these
secrets all Masters of the Naqshbandi Golden Chain and all other Sufi
Orders receive their knowledge. This knowledge was transmitted only from
heart to heart, either through Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
or through Ali
For three years, as the Muslims increased in
number, they used Dar al-Arqam as a mosque in which to teach, to worship
and to hide. Then the Prophet
was ordered to proclaim the religion openly. Allah sent a surah of the
Qur'an challenging anyone to write anything like it. Poets, leaders and
famous people tried until they openly accepted the self-evident fact
that it was not possible. Still the unbelievers went to his uncle,
complaining, saying, "Give us Muhammad
so we may kill him." He said, "No one can touch him as long as I am
living." The unbelievers tortured all those who did believe him. They
kidnapped their wives, killed their children and raped their daughters.
The new Muslims suffered all kinds of difficulties at the hands of the
For thirteen years the Prophet
stayed in Makkah, calling the people to Allah's religion.
The unbelievers asked for a miracle or a sign in
the heavens. The Holy Prophet divided the full moon in two in front of
their eyes. Some of them believed and some of them did not. After this
the persecution continued and some Muslims asked permission to emigrate.
They emigrated to Ethiopia, where the King gave them refuge and, through
their influence, became a believer in the Prophet
. They stayed there for five years before some of them returned to
Makkah. The Prophet's
uncle and then his wife Khadija al-Kubra
died. These were his staunchest supporters. It was the year of sadness.
A year and a half later, he was invited to the
Presence of Allah, Almighty and Exalted. From Makkah to Jerusalem (Quds)
he travelled accompanied by Archangel Gabriel (Jibril)
. From Jerusalem he ascended to the heavens by means of Buraq, a
heavenly mount who carried him up. All the prophets in the different
levels of heaven came to greet him. He ascended higher and higher, until
he heard the scratching of the Pen, writing out God's Decree. He
approached the Divine Presence, closer and closer, until Jibril
said to him, "Ya Rasul Allah (O Prophet of God), I cannot continue
further, or I will be extinguished." The Prophet
said, "O Jibril, accompany me!" He said, "I cannot, or I will be burned
in Allah's Light." So Muhammad
, the most Perfect of the Perfect, continued alone. Driven by his love
for Allah's Divine Presence he approached closer and closer, achieving
the State of Complete Annihilation in five different stages.
From one stage to another the Prophet
moved into Allah's Divine Secrets. Between each stage was five hundred
thousand years. He passed through these vast Divine Oceans of Knowledge,
which Allah Almighty and Exalted has created, until he was completely
dissolved in Allah's Existence, seeing nothing except Him. Then Allah
called him to return to existence after he had reached the State of
Annihilation. He returned and Allah told him, "O Muhammad, Approach
closer." From this it is understood that the Prophet
, having reached the State of Complete Annihilation, was called by Allah
by his name, indicating that he was appearing anew with Allah's
Appearance. He reached so near to the Divine Light, that he was "two
bow-lengths or nearer" [53:9]. Allah asked him, "Who are you, O
Muhammad?" At that time the Prophet
was not conscious of himself and he replied: "You, O my Lord." This is
the perfection of the state of not associating anyone with Allah. It is
the perfect sign of Tawhid (Oneness), when nothing exists except His
Glory, His Essence, Himself.
Shaykh Nazim al-Haqqani has related, from the
hidden knowledge of the Sufi saints, some of the events that occurred on
that incredible journey of the Prophet. This is knowledge from the
Prophet which Abu Huraira referred to in his hadith, knowledge passed
down from the heart of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. The Prophet
said, "Whatever Allah poured into my heart I poured into the heart of
as-Siddiq." This knowledge was then passed to the Naqshbandi Sufi saints
and constitutes their spiritual inheritance.
Shaykh Nazim al-Haqqani said, "Allah Almighty
and Exalted said to the Prophet
on the Night of Ascension, O Muhammad, I have created all of creation
for your sake, and I am giving it all to you. At that moment Allah
granted the Prophet
power to see all that He had created, with all of their lights and all
of the favors that Allah had granted His creatures by decorating them
with his Attributes and with His Divine Love and Beauty.
was enthralled and enraptured because Allah had given him the gift of
such a creation. Allah said to him, 'Ya Muhammad, are you happy with
this creation?' He said, 'Yes, My Lord.' He said, 'I am giving them to
you in Trust to keep, to be responsible for, and to return to Me just as
I gave them to you.' Muhammad
was looking at them in delight because they were illuminated with
beautiful lights, and he said, 'O My Lord, I accept.' Allah said, 'Are
you accepting?' He replied, 'I accept, I accept.' As he finished
replying the third time, Allah granted him a vision of the sins and the
many forms of misery, darkness, and ignorance into which they were going
saw this he was dismayed, wondering how he would be able to return them
to His Lord as clean as in their original state. He said, 'O My Lord,
what is this?' Allah replied, 'O My beloved, this is your
responsibility. You have to return them to Me as clean as I gave them to
You.' Then Muhammad
said, 'O my Lord, give me helpers to help me clean them, to sanctify
their spirits, and to take them from darkness and ignorance to the state
of knowledge, of piety, of peace and love.'
"Then Allah, Almighty and Exalted, granted him a
vision in which he informed him that out of this creation He had chosen
for him 7,007 Naqshbandi Saints. He told him, 'O My beloved, O Muhammad,
these saints are from the most Distinguished Saints that I created to
help you in keeping this creation clean. Out of them are 313 who are in
the highest, most perfect state in the Divine Presence. They are the
inheritors of the secrets of 313 Messengers. Then I am giving you forty,
who are carrying the most distinguished powers, and they are considered
the Pillars of all saints. They are going to be the Masters of their
times and they are going to be the Inheritors of the Secrets of
"'At the hands of these saints everyone will be
healed from his wounds, both externally and internally. These saints
will be able to carry the whole Nation and the whole of Creation without
any sign of tiring. Every one of them will be the Ghawth
in his time, under whom will be the five Qutub
was happy and he said, 'O my Lord, give me more!' Then Allah showed him
124,000 saints, and He said, 'These saints are the inheritors of the
124,000 prophets. Each one is an inheritor from one prophet. They also
will be there to help you clean this Nation.'
"While the Prophet
was ascending to the Divine Presence, Allah caused him to hear a human
voice. The voice was that of his friend and closest Companion, Abu Bakr
. The Prophet
was told by Allah Almighty to order Abu Bakr as-Siddiq to call all the
Naqshbandi saints: the 40, the 313, and the 7,007, and all their
followers, in their spiritual forms, into the Divine Presence. All were
to receive those distinguished Lights and Blessings.
"Then Allah ordered the Prophet
, who ordered Abu Bakr
, to call the 124,000 saints of the other 40 Tariqats and their
followers to be given that Light in the Divine Presence. All of the
Shaykhs began to appear in that gathering with all of their followers.
Allah then asked the Prophet
to look at them with his Prophetic power and light, and to lift them all
to the station of Siddiqin, the Trustworthy and the Truthful.
Then Allah Almighty and Exalted said to the Prophet
, and the Prophet
said to the saints, 'All of you and all of your followers are going to
be stars shining among human beings, to spread that light which I gave
you in pre-Eternity to all human beings on earth.'"
Mawlana Shaykh Nazim says, "That is only one of
the secrets that has been revealed about the Night of Ascension to the
hearts of the saints through the transmission of the Golden Chain of the
Naqshbandi Order." Many more visions were given to the Prophet
, but there is no permission to unveil them.
That Night, the Prophet
was ordered by Allah to perform 50 prayers a day. He shortened it to
five prayers a day on the advice of the Prophet Moses (Musa)
. He returned from that Night Journey, and the first one to believe him
was Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
. The unbelievers, hoping to ridicule him, asked him to describe
Jerusalem. He described it in all its details, and the unbelievers were
Persecution against the Prophet
and his Companions escalated. Then Allah sent him the Ansar (Helpers)
from Madinah. Islam had begun to spread among the tribes of this small
oasis not far from Makkah. Allah gave the believers permission to
migrate to Madinah, the home of the Ansar. Abu Bakr
wanted to migrate, but Muhammad told him, "Don't leave yet, wait, and
maybe you will travel with me. There is a very important event which
fled at night with Abu Bakr
and left behind him Ali
to impersonate him in his bed. On the way he stopped to hide in the Cave
of Thawr. Abu Bakr said, "O Prophet, don't enter, I will enter first."
In his heart he thought that there might be something harmful inside and
he chose to encounter it first. He found a hole in the cave. He called
to come in and he put his foot over the hole. The Prophet
came in and lay down with his head on Abu Bakr's thigh. A snake inside
the hole began to bite the foot of Abu Bakr. He tried not to move
although he was in great pain. Tears flowed down his cheeks. One warm
tear dropped on the blessed face of the Prophet
. At this, as was mentioned in the Qur'an: "He said to his friend,
Grieve not for verily Allah is with us." [9: 40] and he also said,
"What do you think of two when God is their Third?" [57: 5]. Abu
Bakr said to the Prophet, "O Prophet of God, I am not sad, but I am in
pain. A snake is biting my foot and I am worried that it might bite you.
I am crying because my heart is burning for you and for your safety."
The Prophet was so pleased with the reply of his beloved Companion that
he hugged Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
, put his hand on his heart and poured the knowledge that Allah had
given him into the heart of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. That is why he said in a
hadith, "Whatever Allah poured into my heart, I poured into the heart of
Our Grandshaykh Muhammad Nazim al-Haqqani says,
"Following this the Prophet put his other hand on the foot of Abu Bakr
as-Siddiq and read, Bismillah ir-Rahman ir-Rahim, and the foot
was immediately healed. Then he ordered the snake to come out and the
snake came out, coiling itself in front of the Prophet
. Then the Prophet said to the snake, 'Do you not know that the flesh of
a Siddiq is forbidden to you? Why are eating the flesh of my Companion?'
He replied to the Prophet in a perfect and pure Arabic, 'O Prophet of
Allah, were not all things created for your sake and for your love? O
Prophet, I too love You. When I heard that Allah Almighty and Exalted
said that the best nation is your nation, I asked Him to prolong my life
and grant me the honor of being among your nation and looking at your
face. And Allah granted me that wish and that honor. When Abu Bakr put
his foot in that hole, it blocked my sight. I wanted him to move his
foot to enable me to see you.' The Prophet
said, 'Look at me now and fulfill your wish.' The snake looked and
looked; after a while, it died. The Prophet
ordered the Jinn to carry the snake away and bury it."
Mawlana Shaykh Nazim says, "These are secrets
that have been given to the hearts of the Naqshbandi Saints." He
continues the story thus: "Then the Prophet
said to Abu Bakr, 'There was no need to stop in this cave, except that a
significant event will happen here. The Light of the root of the
spiritual Tree which is going to spread over all humanity, the Light
coming directly from the Divine Presence, will appear here. Allah has
ordered me to transmit it to you and to all the Naqshbandi Sufi
"This lineage was not called the Naqshbandi at
that time, but was known as the Children of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq,
and he was known to saints as the 'Father' of this line.
"Then Allah asked the Prophet to order Abu Bakr
as-Siddiq to call all the Masters of the Golden Chain who are the
inheritors of Abu Bakr. The latter called the Grandshaykhs of this
Golden Chain, all of them, from his time down to the time of the Mahdi
. All of them were called through their spirits from the World of Souls.
Then he was ordered to call the 7,007 Naqshbandi Saints. Then the
called the 124,000 prophets.
"Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, by order of the Prophet
, ordered every grandshaykh to summon all his followers to appear
spiritually. Then Abu Bakr as-Siddiq ordered all the Shaykhs to take the
hands of their followers to receive initiation. He put his hand above
them all, and then Muhammad
put his hand above all of them, and then Allah put His Hand, the Hand of
Power (Qudrat), over them all. Allah by Himself, put on the
tongue of everyone present His recitation (talqeen az-Zikr), and
He told the Prophet to order Abu Bakr as-Siddiq to order all the saints
present with their followers to recite what they were hearing from the
Voice of Power:
ALLAHU ALLAHU ALLAHU HAQQ
ALLAHU ALLAHU ALLAHU HAQQ
"All of those present followed their Shaykhs and
the Shaykhs followed what they heard the Prophet reciting. Then Allah
Almighty and Exalted taught the secret of the Dhikr, known as
Khatm-il-Khwajagan, to Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujduwani, who led the first
dhikr among the saints of this Order. The Prophet
announced to Abu Bakr, who announced to all saints, that Abdul Khaliq
al-Ghujdawani is the leader of the Khatm-i-Khwajagan. Everyone was
honored to receive that secret and light from Khwaja Abdul Khaliq
al-Ghujdawani, in the presence of all saints, in the presence of Abu
Bakr as-Siddiq, in the presence of The Prophet
, in the Presence of Allah."
Mawlana Shaykh Nazim said, "Anyone who accepts
initiation from us or attends our Dhikr must know that he was in the
cave at that blessed time, in the Presence of the Prophet
, and that he received all of these secrets then. These secrets have
been transmitted to us from the masters of the Golden Chain, through Abu
Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
was overjoyed and astounded with what took place in that cave, and he
understood why the Prophet had chosen him to be the companion of his
migration. The Naqshbandi Shaykhs consider the events in the cave as the
foundation of the Tariqat. Not only is it the source of the daily
wird (devotion) but the souls of all members of the Order were
present together at that time.
After the events in the cave, they continued on
to Madinat al-Munawwarah. When they reached Quba, a village near Madinah,
on a Monday in Rabi'ul Awwal, they stopped for several days. There the
built the first mosque. They continued on their way on a Friday, after
praying the Friday Prayer at Quba. It was the first Jum'a that he
prayed. He entered Madinah with his friend, amid shouts of takbir
(ALLAHU AKBAR) and tahmid (AL-HAMDU LILLAH) and the excited,
joyful happiness of everyone. He moved to the place his camel stopped,
and it is there that he built his mosque and his home. He stayed as a
guest in the home of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari until his mosque was built.
When the Prophet
came to Madinah, it was full of diseases. As soon as he arrived, the
diseases disappeared. Following is a brief list of the main events of
the next ten years.
Year One - The Prophet
was inspired to call the people to prayer by means of the human
Year Two - He was ordered to
institute the monthly fast of Ramadan, and he was directed to
face the Ka'aba in Makkah during prayers, instead of towards
Jerusalem as they had done previously. It was the year that he
fought the unbelievers in the decisive Battle of Badr.
Year Three - The Prophet
fought the unbelievers at Uhud.
Year Four - The battle of Bani
Nadeer took place, and permission was given for shortening the
prayer during traveling and fighting. Alcohol was forbidden.
Tayammum, or ritual purification with sand when water is not
available, was allowed and the "prayer in fear" was authorized.
Year Five - The battle of Khandaq
took place and the defection of Banu Quraizah and Mustaliq
Year Six - The Treaty of
Hudaibiyya took place as did the Pledge of Loyalty -- the model
of Sufi initiation -- under the Tree. The fifth pillar of the
religion, the obligation of Hajj, also came in this year.
Year Seven - The battle of
Khaibar took place.
Year Eight - The events of Mu'ta,
the peaceful conquest of Makkah and the battle of Hunayn
Year Nine - The battle of Tabuk
occurred and the Pilgrimage of as-Siddiq. It was called the Year
Year Ten - The Prophet
made what is known as the Farewell Pilgrimage.
Year Eleven -The Prophet
passed on to the other life.
Allah Almighty and Exalted adorned the Prophet
with His Divine Lights and Manners, and then He added more by saying to
him: "Truly you are of a magnificient nature" [68:4].
was neither tall nor short, but he was of middle height. He had broad
shoulders. His color was light, neither dark nor white. He had a broad
forehead, with heavy eyebrows, not connected but with a blaze shining
like silver in the middle of them. His eyes were large. His teeth were
very white, like pearls. His hair was not curly nor was it straight, but
in between. His neck was long. His chest was broad, without much flesh.
The color of his chest was light, and between his sternum and his navel
was a line of hair. He had no hair on his chest other than that line.
His shoulders were wide and had hair on them. On his shoulders were two
seals of Prophecy. All his Companions used to look at them. The right
shoulder had a black beauty mark, and around it were some small hairs,
like the hairs of a horse. His forearms were large. His wrists were
long. His fingers were also long. His palm was smoother than silk.
Whenever he put his hand on the head of a child or a man, the beautiful
scent of musk came from it. Wherever he moved, a cloud moved with him
that shaded him from the heat of the sun. His sweat was like white
pearls, and its smell was like amber and musk. The Companions said they
had never seen anything like it before.
The Holy Prophet
used to look down more than he raised his head. Whoever saw him from
afar was amazed by him and whoever knew him intimately loved him. He was
most handsome both in his external appearance and his internal
Amr ibn al-`As said, "No one was
dearer to me than the Holy Prophet
nor was anyone more glorious than him in my eyes. So bright was his
glory that I could not look at his face for any length of time, so that
if I were asked to describe him I would not be able to as I had not
looked at him long enough."
was the bravest among people, the most just and the most generous. He
used to walk alone among his enemies at night without a guard. He was
never afraid of anything in this world. He was the most modest of his
person, the most sincere, and the most pious. He never spoke just to
spend time. He preferred silence to speech and never showed pride,
although he was the most eloquent speaker.
Allah gave the Prophet
mastery in politics and mastery in private conduct. Although he didn't
write or read, Allah raised him from the land of ignorance, taught him
the best of manners and the best of ethics.
He was the gentlest of men, the most tolerant,
the most merciful, as Allah Himself called him "Kindest and Most
Merciful" [9:128]. He smiled at everyone and joked with everyone in
a decent way. Alone he was always crying and entreating Allah for
forgiveness for his Ummah. He was always contemplating and meditating.
He always used to sit to remember Allah by reciting Dhikr.
He used to walk with the widow and orphan. He
showed humbleness to unbelievers, wishing them to become believers.
Someone asked him "pray for Allah to curse the unbelievers." He said, "I
was not sent to curse but as a Mercy. I will ask for them to be guided
because they don't know."
He called everyone to Allah. He never humiliated
the poor. He was never afraid of a king. He always chose the easy way,
according to Allah's wish [2:185, 20:2]. He laughed without making a
sound, not out loud. He always said, "serve your people." He used to
milk his goats, serve his family, patch clothes, walk sometimes
barefooted, visit the sick, even if they were unbelievers or hypocrites,
visiting the graves of believers and greeting them, training with the
sword, learning the bow and arrow, riding the horse, riding the camel,
riding the donkey. He used to eat with the poor and wretched. He always
accepted a gift graciously, even if it was a spoonful of yogurt, and he
used to reward it. He never ate from sadaqa (charity), but
immediately passed it on to the poor. He never kept one dinar or one
dirham in his house except he gave it to the poor. He never came home
until he spent all that Allah had given him.
He was very good to his family and to his
friends. He urged his friends to walk in front of him and walked behind
them. He said, "leave my back for angels." His companionship was the
companionship of patience and shyness. Whoever argued with him saw
patience from him, and he did not reply to those who insulted him. He
never came against anyone in anger nor ever used bad language. He was
never angry for himself and was only angry for his Lord's sake. He used
to eat with his servants. He never slapped anyone with his hand. He
never punished for a mistake, but always forgave. His servant Anas ()
said, "In all my life, he never asked me once: why did you do this, or
why didn't you do that?"
He used to wear whatever he found, cotton or
wool, but mostly he used to wear cotton. He liked green clothes. Abu
says, "He wore the long, loose shirts, the burda and the habra
and the jubba, and he wore the turban with a face-veil and
loose-ended, the izar and the rida'." Jabir ibn Samurah ()
says, "I saw the Prophet
on a moonlit night. He had a red cloak over his body, and I looked
attentively in turn towards him and the moon. Certainly, he appeared to
me more beautiful than the moon itself." He used to wear the white
turban and the black turban and sometimes the red turban. He used to
leave a tail at the back of his turban. Imam Tabari said "he used to
have a turban of seven arms' length." He had a turban by the name of
Sihab (the Clouds) which he gave to Ali ().
He used to wear a silver ring on his right hand, engraved with the words
"Muhammadun Rasul-Allah." He used to wear khuffs (leather
socks) on his feet. He liked perfumes and fragrant scents.
He never saw ease and would not possess even a
bed, as he wished to make his abode in the next world. His mattress was
made from tree-leaves. He had a big cloak which he used to put on the
floor and sit on. Sometimes he use to sleep on a reed mat or directly on
He was a healer for himself and for others. He
used to heal by reciting Qur'an on the sick person. He warned people to
avoid too much eating. He performed countless miracles. He prayed that
Ali not feel the hot and cold weather, and he never felt them. He prayed
for Ibn `Abbas to be a genius in religion, jurisprudence, and
explanation of Qur'an, which came to pass. When Qutada's eye fell out of
its socket, he put it back, and Qutada was able to see with it better
than he ever had before. He rubbed the foot of Ibn Abi `Atiq when it was
broken and it healed immediately. The moon split on his order as a sign
to the unbelievers. Water sprang forth from his fingers from which a
whole army drank and made ablution. From a small cup of water, water was
pouring, making the desert like an oasis. The branch of a tree under
which he sat, bowed in a gesture of love as he stood up to leave. The
minbar (pulpit) at which he used to preach, used to give a moaning
sound, as if crying for him. The stones praised Allah in his hand, so
that everyone heard them. The animals complained to him. The deer and
the wolf testified to his prophethood. He predicted that his daughter
Fatima would be the first to follow him in death. He foretold Uthman
Dhu-n-Nurayn, his third caliph and son-in-law, would be assassinated. He
announced the murder of al-Aswad bin Annasi on the night of his death in
Sana'a in far off Yaman. He mentioned the death of the King of Persia to
his Companions on the exact moment that it happened. He ate meat full of
poison, but nothing happened to him though the one who ate with him died
immediately. Countless other miracles could be mentioned.
No one can make a complete account of his
sayings. Even if the seas of this world were ink and the trees were pens
no one could write all the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad
. Thousands and hundreds of thousands of his ahadith (narrated
sayings) have been written from what he was saying and it was known as
the `Ilm al-Hadith or Science of Prophetic Narration.
"Allah rewards people according to what
"Allah said, whoever comes against one
of My saints, I will declare war against him."
"Allah's saints are under his domes. No
one knows them except Him."
"Be near the poor [meaning the spiritual
poor] because they have a government of their own."
"Be in this world as a stranger and a
guest, and make the mosques your homes, and teach your heart
leniency, and make much remembrance and cry much."
"How many people welcome a day whose end
they will not live to see, and expect a tomorrow which they do
"Say the truth, even if to your
"Make everything easy and don't make it
difficult. Give good tidings and don't cause people to run
"Allah said, 'O Son of Adam, you will
get what you have intended, and you will be with the one whom
you love more.'"
"Keep Allah and He will keep you. Keep
Allah before you. If you need help, ask His Help."
"Be austere in this lower world and
Allah will love you. Be austere with what is in the hands of
people and the people will love you."
"The one who has the most perfect mind
is the one who is most fearful of Allah.
"Beware of the lower world because it is
a black magic."
"Refrain except from good speech."
"Give back the Trust and don't betray
"When Allah loves someone, He will put
him in difficulties."
"When Allah wants good for His servant,
He will guide him to someone that shows him the way."
"Forgive, and Allah will forgive you."
"Be merciful, Allah will be merciful
"The one under the heaviest punishment
on the Day of Judgment is a fierce scholar."
"The one under the heaviest punishment
on the Day of Judgement is a scholar whose knowledge did not
"Ask Allah forgiveness and health."
"Keep what you are doing secret."
"The most sinful person is the one whose
tongue is always lying."
"All Creation is a servant of Allah. The
most beloved to Him among them is the one that helped his
"The best deed is when people will be
safe from your tongue and your hand."
"As long as you say 'La ilaha
ill-Allah' (No god but God) it will lift Allah's punishment
from you and change you for the good."
"O People, are you not ashamed that you
collect more than you eat, and you build houses more than you
need to live in?"
When Allah Almighty and Exalted perfected his
Nation and completed His favor on His Prophet
, He transferred him to a house better than his house, and to a Friend
better than his friends. Allah Called his soul in his last days. As a
result, his final sickness began in the last ten days of the month of
Safar, in the house of his wife Maimuna ().
When his sickness intensified, he transferred to the house of `Ayesha ().
He was sick for twelve days. He used to send Abu Bakr as-Siddiq to lead
the prayers as a sign to the Sahaba that he had chosen him as his
He passed away on a Monday, the 12th of Rabi`ul
Awwal. Wrapped in his nightgown, he was washed by Sayyidinas `Ali, `Abbas
ibn `Abd al-Muttalib and his two sons, Qutham and Fadl. `Usama bin Zaid
and Shakran were pouring the water which Awwas Khazraji was bringing
from the well. As they performed their washing, the body exuded
beautiful scents, so that `Ali ()
said continually: "By God, what would I give for you! How sweet you are
and how wholesome you are, both alive and dead!" His Companions entered
his house one by one to pray on him, then ladies prayed on him, then
children prayed on him. He was buried in the same place he passed away,
in the house of `Ayesha
Abu Talhah Zayd ibn Sahl dug his grave and those who washed him lowered
his blessed body into it. Then it was covered and leveled and they threw
water on it.
People were bereaved, tongues were silent. The
world seemed darkened. No one knew what to say. The Holy Spirit -- the
-- was no longer to come bringing revelation. The Prophet's
death was the greatest disaster for every Companion. Many people were
crying and shouting. But Allah sent supporters for His religion, because
that was the Seal of Prophets. He sent a Renewer (mujaddid) of
this religion century after century. Saint after saint, we find that
every grandshaykh of the Most Distinguished Naqshbandi Order was like a
shadow of the Prophet
, reviving the deen (religion) and training the seekers to find
their Lord as the Companions had been trained.
The secret of God's strong support and pure
guidance passed from Muhammad
to his beloved friend, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. What the Prophet
poured into the heart of Abu Bakr ()
no one knows. May Allah send upon our Prophet more and more of His
Light! He was sent as a Mercy for human beings and his secret passed
from one saint to another to support this religion and to bring his
secret to the hearts of human beings.
Hadrat Abu Bakr
The personal name of Hadrat Abu Bakr ra was
Abdullah, but based on his son’s name, Bakr, he was known as Abu Bakr.
His father was known as Abu Qahafah and his mother as Ummul Khair Salma.
He was born in 572AD in Mecca. He was a close friend of the Holy Prophet
saw. He was the first among men to confirm the truth of the
claim of the Holy Prophet saw and thus earned the title
Siddiq. He was in the company of the Holy Prophet saw during
his migratory journey (Hijrah) from Mecca to Medina. He was the only
companion of the Holy Prophet saw in the Cave Thaur, where
they both took refuge during this journey.
Following the Hijjatul Wida (The Last
Pilgrimage), when the Holy Prophet saw fell seriously ill, he
instructed Hadrat Abu Bakra ra to lead the daily Prayers.
After the sad demise of the Holy Prophet saw, Hadrat Abu Bakr
ra was elected as the first Khalifah. He had to deal with an
extremely difficult situation which developed due to the sudden demise
of the holy Prophet saw.
The first problem was that some of the tribes
renounced Islam, simply because their tribal chiefs did not feel
necessary to remain loyal to the successors for the Holy Prophet’’. Not
only that but they started preparing to attack Medina to end the newly
established institution of Khilafat. Hadrat Abu Bakr ra.
After knowing their intentions, sent troops and succeeded in suppressing
The second major problem faced by Hadrat Abu
Bakr Siddiq ra was that many people refused to pay the Zakat,
which was essential for fulfilling the needs of the Islamic state and
caring of the poor. Hadrat Abu Bakr ra vowed to collect Zakat
from every one and took all the necessary measures to achieve this goal.
The most dangerous of all the problems was that
a number of ambitious persons pretending to be prophets, started
rebellion against the Islamic state. Musalima Kadhdhab and Aswad Ansi,
raised large armies and captured some of the Muslim territories. Hadrat
Abu Bakr ra was prompt to fight back these rebellious false
prophets. Despite meager resources, Allah granted him victory against
the mischief mongers.
One of the many great achievements of his
Khilafat was the collection of the Holy Qur’an at one place. Although
the writing and arrangement of the Holy Qur’an was done under the
supervision of the Holy Prophet saw himself, yet it was
written on various pieces of skin, leaves and slates. Hadrat Abu Bakr
ra collected all these pieces of writings in one place, and
re-organized the system of Huffaz, or those who committed it to memory,
in a systematic way, for the preservation of the Qur’an.
During the last days of his life, the Holy
Prophet saw had raised an army to be sent against the Romans
who had made some incursions into the Northern borders. This army was
still in medina when the Holy Prophet saw passed away. As
Hadrat Abu Bakr ra became Khalifah, the law and order
situation within and outside the Medina became very delicate. In view of
this grace danger, many Companions of Holy Prophet saw
advised him not to send the army against Romans. But Hadrat Abu Bakr
ra replied forcefully, “What authority has the Son of Abu
Qahafah, to stop that which was started by the Holy Prophet saw.
The Muslim army, under the command of Hadrat Khalid bin Walid ra,
crushed a rebellion in Bahrain. Then the Persians were defeated, who had
supported the rebels of Bahrain. The Muslim Army Also defeated the Roman
forces in the battles of Ajnadan and Yarmuk, and thus the whole of Syria
came under the control of the Islamic state.
Hadrat Abu Bakr ra passed away on
August 23, 634 AD, after remaining ill for fifteen days. He was one of
the ten blessed ones to whom the Holy Prophet saw had given
the glad tidings that they had been rewarded the Paradise. He remained
Khalifah for a little over two years.
This is the story of the pious, mystic, Faqhi, intellectual and ascetic,
Salman the Persian. He grew up in the town of Isfahan in Persia, in the
village of Jayyan. His father was the Dihqan (chief) of the village. He
was the richest person there and had the biggest house.His father loved
him, more than he loved any other. As time went by, his love for Salman
became so strong and overpowering that he feared to lose him or have
anything happen to him. So he kept him at home, a virtual prisoner, in
the same way that young girls were kept.
Salman became devoted to the Magian religion,
so much so that he attained the position of custodian of the fire, which
they worshipped. His duty was to see that the flames of the fire
remained burning and that it did not go out for a single hour, day or
Salman’s father had a vast estate, which yielded
an abundant supply of crops. He himself looked after the estate and
gathered harvest. One day as he went about his duties as Dihqan of the
village, he said to Salman, ‘My son, as you see, I am too busy to go out
to the estate now. Go and look after matters there for me today.
On the way to the estate, Salman passed a Christian church and heard
voices raised in prayer, which attracted his attention. He did not know
anything about Christianity or, for that matter, about the followers of
any other religion. His father had kept him in the house away from
people. When he heard the voices of the Christians, he entered the
church to see what they were doing. He was impressed by their manner of
praying and felt drawn to their religion. He said, ‘This religion is
better than ours. I shall not leave them until the sunsets.’
inclination to Christianity
Salman asked and was told that the Christian
religion originated in Syria. He did not go to his father’s estate that
day and at night, he returned home. His father met him and asked where
he had been. Salman told him about his meeting with the Christians and
how he was impressed by their religion. His father was dismayed and
said: ‘My son, their is nothing good in that religion. Your religion and
the religion of your forefathers is better.”
‘No, their religion is better than ours,’ he
insisted. His father became upset and afraid that Salman would leave
their religion. So he kept Salman locked up in the house and shackled
his feet. Salman managed to send a message to the Christians, asking
them to inform him of any caravans going to Syria. Before long they
contacted him with the information he wanted. He broke the fetters and
escaped his father’s estate to join the caravan to Syria. When he
reached Syria, he asked regarding the leading person in the Christian
religion and was directed to the bishop of the church. He went up to him
and said: ‘I want to become a Christian and would like to attach myself
to your service, learn from you and pray with you.’
The bishop agreed and Salman
entered the church in his service. Salman
soon found out, however, that the bishop was corrupt. He would order his
followers to give money in charity while holding out the promise of
blessings to them. When they gave the bishop anything to spend in the
way of Allah, he would hoard it for himself and not give anything to the
poor or needy. In this way, he amassed a vast quantity of gold. When the
bishop died and the Christians gathered to bury him, Salman
told them of his corrupt practices and, at their request, showed them
where the bishop had kept their donations. When they saw the large jars
filled with gold and silver they said, ‘By Allah, we shall not bury
him.’ They nailed him on a cross and threw stones at him. Not long
after, the local people appointed another man in place of the first.
stayed on, in the service of this person who replaced him. The new
bishop was an ascetic who longed for the Hereafter and engaged in
worship day and night. Salman
was devoted to him and spent much of the time in his company.
Before he passed away, Salman
said to him, “O so and so Priest! The time has come for you to witness
Allah Ta'ala's decision (meaning death). I swear by Allah, I have never
adored anyone as much as I have adored you! So what would you instruct
me to do? And who can you recommend for me to see?”
He replied, “O son! I do not know
of anyone except for a certain man living in the city of Mosul. Go to
him, for you will find that he is similar to me.”
A short while after he passed away,
arrived at Mosul and found the priest he had been sent to, and indeed,
he was very much like the one before him in terms of simplicity and
striving. After he passed away, Salman
was referred to another priest who in turn sent him to a priest in
Ammuriyah (Ameria, near Rome) , before his demise. Salman
stayed by this Roman priest, and decided to make a living. Eventually
hemanaged to acquire some sheep and cows.
When his death was near, Salman
told him of my story and asked him for his advice just as he had asked
those before him. He said: “There is nobody following our ways of life I
can send you to. Nevertheless, your life seems to coincide with the era
of the predestined Prophet who will arise from the Haram. His migration
will be to a city full of date trees. Moreover, he will certainly have
some distinct features: Between his shoulder blades, there will be the
Seal of the Prophethood. He will eat food, provided it is a gift and not
a donation. If you can reach that city, then do so, because you are very
close to his era.”
to the Arabs and Islam
A group of Arab leaders from the Kalb tribe
passed through Ammuriyah. Salman
asked them to take him with them to the land of the Arabs, in return for
whatever money he had. They agreed to take him along. When they reached
Wadi al-Qura (a place between Syria and Madinah), the Arabs broke their
agreement and made him a slave, then sold Salman
to a Jew. Salman worked
as a servant for him but he eventually sold him to a nephew of his,
belonging to the tribe of Banu Qurayzah. This nephew took Salman
with him to Yathrib, the city of palm groves, which is how the Christian
at Ammuriyah had described it.
At that time the Prophet
was inviting his people in Makkah to Islam but Salman
did not know of this because of the harsh duties slavery imposed upon
him. When the Prophet
reached Yathrib after his hijrah from Makkah, Salman
was on top of a palm tree doing some work. Salman’s
master was sitting under the tree. A nephew of Salman’s
master came up and said, ‘May Allah declare war on the Aws and the
Khazraj (the two main Arab tribes of Yathrib). By Allah, they are now
gathering at Quba to meet a man, who has just today, arrived from Makkah
and who claims to be Prophet.’
felt light-headed upon hearing these words and began to shiver so
violently that he had to climb down, in fear that he may fall. He
quickly swung down from the tree and spoke to his master’s nephew.
‘What did you say? Repeat the news for me.’
master grew angry at this breach of protocol and struck him a terrible
blow. ‘What does this matter to you’? Go back to what you were doing,’
I left the house for a while,
making inquiries. I asked a woman I met from the city whose entire
family had become Muslim. She showed me the way to the Prophet
When it was evening, I took
some food with me and went to the Prophet
The Prophet was in Quba at the time. I said, “Word has reached me that
you are a very pious man, and that you have some travellers in your
company. I had some charity and thought that you would be most deserving
of it. This is it; you may have some to eat.” The Prophet
withdrew his own hand, not eating from it, but told his Companions to
eat. At the time, I thought, “This is one of the characteristics my
Mentor told me of.”
On my way back, I saw that the
was heading to Madinah . Thus, I took the food to him, saying, “I saw
that you were not eating from this charity. As a matter of fact, I
presented it as a gift and not charity.” This time, the Prophet
also ate with his Companions. “That makes two signs,” I thought.
Later on, I approached the
as he was walking behind the corpse in a funeral. I remember that at the
time, he was covered in two sheets, and that his Companions were with
I was trying to steal a look at
the Seal on his back, when the Prophet
saw me glancing. Realising that I wanted to verify what someone had told
me, he let his cloak drop a little, and I managed to see that the Seal
between his shoulder blades was exactly the way my Mentor had described
it. I threw myself down before the Prophet (sallallahu-alayhi wasallam)
kissing (his blessed hands/feet) and started to cry. The Holy Prophet
said, “O Salman! Reveal your story.”
So I sat in front of him,
relating my story to him and hoping that his Companions could also hear
it. When I had finished, the Prophet said, “O Salman! Make a deal with
your owner to free you.”
Consequently, my master did
agree to free me, but in exchange for the following: ‘Three hundred date
trees, as well as one thousand, six hundred silver coins.' Hence, the
Sahaba (Radhiallahu anahum) helped by providing around twenty to thirty
date plants each, and a tenth of every man's land in accordance to how
much he owned. The Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said to me, “Dig
a hole for each date-plant. When you are finished, let me know so that I
can personally fix all the date-plants into place with my own hands.”
Thus, with the help of my friends, I dug holes wherever the date-plants
were to be put.
Later on, the Prophet
came. We stood by his side holding the plants as he fixed them into the
ground. I swear by The Being Who sent the Prophet
with the Truth, not a single plant died out.
Nevertheless, I still had the
silver to pay. A man came to the Prophet
bringing from the mines some gold which was roughly the size of a
pigeon's egg. The Prophet said, “O Salman! Take this and pay off
whatever you have to.”
I replied, “O Messenger of
Allah! How will this be enough for my debt?”
He said, “Allah will surely
make it sufficient for your debt.”
As a result to this statement,
I swear By Allah, it outweighed the one thousand, six hundred coins. I
not only paid off my dues, but what I had left with me was equivalent to
what I had given them.
The strict honesty of the Prophet
was one of the characteristics that led Salman
to believe in him and accept Islam. Salman
was released from slavery by the Prophet ,
who paid his Jewish master a stipulated price, and who himself planted
an agreed number of date palms to secure Salman’s
manumission. After accepting Islam, Salman would
say when asked whose son he was, ‘I am Salman, the son of Islam from the
children of Adam.’
was to play an important role in the struggles of the growing Muslim
State. At the battle of Khandaq, he proved to be an innovator in
military strategy. It was he who suggested digging a ditch or khandaq
around Madinah to keep the Quraysh army at bay. When Abu Sufyan, the
leader of the Makkans, saw the ditch, he said, ‘This stratagem has not
been employed by the Arabs before.’ Salman
participated in all of the other campaigns of the Prophet
thereafter. He was also with Saad in the conquest of Iraq. After the
grand victory, the Caliph Umar
chose him because of his knowledge of the terrain, to select the land
upon which Kufa was to be built.
became known as ‘Salman the Good’. Salman
was a scholar who lived a rough and ascetic life. He had one cloak,
which he wore and slept on. He would not seek the shelter of a roof but
stayed under a tree or against a wall. A man once said to him: ‘Shall I
not build you a house in which you may live?’ ‘I have no need of a
house,’ he replied. The man persisted and said; ‘I know the type of
house that would suit you.’ ‘Describe it to me,’ said Salman. ‘I shall
build you a house which if you stood up in, the roof would hurt your
head and if you were to stretch your legs, the wall would hurt them.’
Later, as a governor of Al-Madain (Ctesiphon)
near Baghdad, Salman
received a stipend of five thousand dhirhams. This he would distribute
as sadaqah. He lived from the work of his own hands. When some people
came to Madina and saw him working the palm groves, they said, ‘You are
the leader here and your sustenance is guaranteed and yet you do this
‘I like to eat from the work of my own hands,’ he replied. Salman
however was not extreme in his ascetism.
It is related that he visited Abu Dardaa
with which the Prophet
had joined him in brotherhood. He found Abu Dardaa’s wife in a miserable
state and he asked, ‘What is the matter with you.’‘Your brother has no
need of anything in this world,’ she replied.
When Abu Dardaa
came, he welcomed Salman and
gave him food. Salman
told him to eat but Abu Dardaa
said, ‘I am fasting.’‘I swear to you that I shall not eat until you eat
spent the night there as well. During the night, Abu ad-Dardaa
got up but Salman
got hold of him and said, ‘O Abu ad-Dardaa, your Lord has a right over
you. Your family has a right over you and your body has a right over
you. Give to each there due.’
Then in the morning, they prayed together and
then went out to meet the Prophet .
in what he had said. (Bukhari)
As a scholar, Salman was
noted for his vast knowledge and wisdom. Ali
said of him that he was like Luqman the Wise. And Kab al-Ahbar said:
‘Salman is bursting with knowledge and wisdom. He is an ocean that does
not dry up.’ Salman
had knowledge of both the Christian scripture and the Quraan in addition
to his earlier knowledge of the Zoroastrian religion. Salman
in fact translated parts of the Quraan into Persian during the lifetime
of the Prophet .
He was thus the first person to translate the Quraan into a foreign
According to the most reliable account, he died
in either 31 or 34 A.H, at the age of 250 years, during the caliphate of
Uthman, at Ctesiphon.
narrates, that the Prophet
prayed the following verse: ‘If ye turn back, He will substitute in your
stead another people, then they would not be like you.’ (Q47:38) The
Sahabah asked the Prophet ,
‘O Prophet ,
who are these people that Allah has mentioned, that he would chose them
instead of us? That they will not do as we did?’ The Prophet
placed his hand on Salman’s thigh and said, ‘It will be his people. And
even if faith is near the Surya (the Pleiads), someone from the Persians
would attain it.’
Who were the people of Kufa and Iraq? Who was
Imaam Abu Hanifah? They were all Persians. The divinely chosen denizens
of Kufa were Persians. Their spiritual teachers were Persians and so
were the three about whom the Prophet
said, ‘Paradise longs for three people. Ali, Amar and Salman.’ (Tirmidhi)
narrates in another Hadith, that the Prophet
once prayed the following verse: ‘As well as others of them, who have
not already joined them.’ (Q62:3) The Sahabah asked, ‘O Prophet of
who are these people,’ The Prophet
placed his hand on Salman
and said, ‘If faith was near the Pleiads, then someone from them would
attain it.’ (Bukhari and Muslim)
Time bore witness to the realisation of the
words. The progeny of the Persians spread their knowledge and populated
Once Abu Sufyan came to Madinah and passed by
and Sohayb .
The three companions said, ‘Have not the swords of Allah beheaded this
accursed man yet?’ Abu Bakr
upon hearing this said, ‘Do not say such things of the leader of Quraish.’
After that, Abu Bakr
went to the Prophet
and told him of this conversation. The Prophet
said, ‘Have you annoyed these three? If you have, then you have annoyed
Allah.’ Abu Bakr
made haste to the three companions and asked them whether they took
offence on his words. They told him that they had not and further said,
‘O brother, may Allah forgive you.’ The annoyance of Salman is
the annoyance of Allah. Even the likes of Abu Bakr fear
to offend him.
It has come in another Hadith that the Prophet
said, ‘Allah has commanded me to love four men, for He too loves them.
They are Ali, Abu Dhar, Miqdad and Salman.’It has also come in a Hadith
that, ‘Each Prophet had seven helpers and protectors, I was given
fourteen. Ali, Hasan and Hussain, Hamzah, Abu Bakr, Umar, Masaab Ibn
Ameer, Bilal, Salman, Amar, Abdullah Ibn Masood, Abu Dhar and Miqdad.’
This was Salman Farsi
, the Persian who’s quest for the true faith lasted almost all of his
250 years of life. As Muslims and as students, it should be our point of
aspiration to achieve at least some of the dedication of Salman Farsi
to faith and the gaining of knowledge.
ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr
May Allah Be Well Pleased With Him
He was one of the seven most famous
jurists in Madinat al-Munawwara. It was through these seven great Imams
that hadith, fiqh (jurisprudence) and tafsir (exegesis) of
the Qur'an were disseminated to the people. His mother was the daughter
of the last king of Persia, Yazdagir. His grandfather was the first
khalif, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. He met some of the Tabi`in,
such as Salim bin `Abdullah ibn `Umar .
He was a pious imam and was very
knowledgeable in hadith narration. Abu Zannad said, "I never saw anyone
better than him in following the Sunnah of the Prophet . In our time no
one is considered perfect until he is perfect in following the Sunnah of
the Prophet . And Qassim is one of the perfected men."
Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Zannad said that
his father said, "I didn't see anyone who knew the Sunnah better than
Abu Nu`aym said of him in
his book Hilyat al-Awliya: "He was able to extract the deepest
juristic rulings and he was supreme in manners and ethics."
Imam Malik narrated that `Umar bin
`Abdul Aziz , considered the fifth rightly-guided khalif, said, "If it
was in my hands, I would have made al-Qassim the khalif in my time."
Sufyan said, "Some people came to al-Qassim
with sadaqa (a donation) which he distributed. After he
distributed it he went to pray. While he was praying the people began to
speak negatively about him. His son said to them, 'You are speaking
behind the back of a man who distributed your sadaqa and didn't
take one dirham from it for himself.' Quickly his father scolded him
saying, 'Don't speak, but keep quiet.' He wanted to teach his son not to
defend him, as his only desire was to please Allah and he had no concern
for the opinion of people.
Yahya bin Sayyid said, "We never found,
in our time in Madinah, anyone better than al-Qassim." Ayyub as-Saqityani
said, "I haven't seen anyone better than Imam Qassim. He left 100,000
dinars behind for the poor when he passed away, and it was all from his
lawful (halal) earnings."
He died in a place between Makkah and
Madinah called al-Qudayd in the year 108 (or 109) H. while he was on
pilgrimage. He was seventy years old at the time of his passing.
May Allah Bless Him and Give Him Peace
The son of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, son of
al-Imam Zain al-`Abidin, son of al-Husayn, son of `Ali bin Abi Talib
Ja`far was born on the eighth of Ramadan in the year 83 H. His mother
was the daughter of al-Qassim
whose great grandfather was Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
He spent his life in worship and acts of piety
for the sake of Allah. He rejected all positions of fame in favor of
`uzla or isolation from the lower world. One of his
contemporaries, `Umar ibn Abi-l-Muqdam, said, "When I look at
Ja`far bin Muhammad I see the lineage and the secret of the Prophet
He received from the Prophet
lines of inheritance: the secret of the Prophet
the secret of the Prophet
through Abu Bakr
him the two lineages met and for that reason he was called "The
Inheritor of the Prophetic Station (Maqam an-Nubuwwa) and the
Inheritor of the Truthful Station (Maqam as-siddiqiyya)." In him
was reflected the light of the knowledge of Truth and Reality. That
light shone forth and that knowledge was spread widely through him
during his lifetime.
Ja`far narrated from his father, Muhammad al-Baqir,
that a man came to his grandfather, Zain al-`Abidin, and said, "Tell me
about Abu Bakr!" He said, "You mean as-Siddiq?" The man said,
"How do you call him as-Siddiq when he is against you, the Family
of the Prophet
replied, "Woe to you. The Prophet
him as-Siddiq, and Allah accepted his title of as-Siddiq.
If you want to come to me, keep the love of Abu Bakr and `Umar in your
Ja`far said, "The best intercession that I hope
for is the intercession of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
From him is reported also the following invocation: "O Allah, You are my
Witness that I love Abu Bakr and I love `Umar and if what I am saying is
not true may Allah cut me off from the intercession of Muhammad
He took the knowledge of hadith from two
sources: from his father through `Ali
from his maternal grandfather al-Qassim. Then he increased his knowledge
of hadith by sitting with `Urwa, `Aata, Nafi` and Zuhri. The two Sufyans,
Sufyan ath-Thawri and Sufyan ibn `Uyayna, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa,
and al-Qattan all narrated hadith through him, as did many others from
later hadith scholars. He was a mufassir al-Qur'an or master in
exegesis, a scholar of jurisprudence, and one of the greatest
mujtahids (qualified to give legal decisions) in Madinah.
acquired both the external religious knowledge as well as the internal
confirmation of its reality in the heart. The latter was reflected in
his many visions and miraculous powers, too numerous to tell.
One time someone complained to al-Mansur, the
governor of Madinah, about Ja`far
brought him before Mansur and asked the man who had complained, "Do you
swear that Ja`far did as you say?" He said, "I swear that he did that."
Ja`far said, "Let him swear that I did what he accused me of and let him
swear that Allah punish him if he is lying." The man insisted on his
complaint and Ja`far insisted that he take the oath. Finally the man
accepted to take the oath. No sooner were the words of the oath out of
his mouth than he fell down dead.
Once he heard that al-Hakm bin al-'Abbas
al-Kalbi crucified his own uncle Zaid on a date palm. He was so unhappy
about this that he raised his hands and said, "O Allah send him one of
your dogs to teach him a lesson." Only a brief time passed before
al-Hakm was eaten by a lion in the desert.
Imam at-Tabari narrates that Wahb said, "I heard
Layth ibn Sa`d say, I went on pilgrimage in the year 113 H., and after I
prayed the afternoon obligatory prayer (salat al-`Asr) I was
reading some verses of the Holy Qur'an and I saw someone sitting beside
me invoking Allah saying 'Ya Allah, Ya Allah...' repeatedly until
he lost his breath. He then continued by saying 'Ya Hayy, Ya Hayy...'
until his breath was again lost. He then raised his hands and said, 'O
Allah, I have the desire to eat grapes, O Allah give me some. And my
robe (jubba) is becoming so old and tattered, please O Allah
grant me a new one.' Laith bin Sa`d said that 'He had hardly finished
his words before a basket of grapes appeared in front of him, and at
that time there were no grapes in season. Beside the basket of grapes
there appeared two cloaks more beautiful than I had ever seen before.' I
said, 'O my partner let me share with you.' He said, 'How are you a
partner?' I replied, 'You were praying and I was saying Amin.'
Then Imam Ja`far said, 'Then come and eat with me,' and he gave me one
of the two cloaks. Then he walked off until he met a man who said, 'O
son of the Prophet
me because I have nothing but these tattered garments to cover me.' He
immediately gave him the cloak that he had just received. I asked that
man, 'Who is that?' He replied, 'That is the great Imam, Ja`far as-Sadiq.'
I ran after him to find him but he had disappeared."
This is only a sample of the many anecdotes and
stories of the miraculous powers (karamat) of Ja`far as-Sadiq
From his knowledge he used to say to Sufyan
ath-Thawri, "If Allah bestows on you a favor, and you wish to keep that
favor, then you must praise and thank Him excessively, because He said,
"If you are thankful Allah will increase for you" [14:7]. He also
said, "If the door of provision is closed for you, then make a great
deal of istighfar (begging forgiveness), because Allah said,
"Seek forgiveness of your Lord, certainly Your Lord is oft-Forgiving"
[11:52]. And he said to Sufyan, "If you are upset by the tyranny of a
Sultan or other oppression that you witness, say "There is no change and
no power except with Allah," (la hawla wa la quwwata illa-billah)
because it is the key to Relief and one of the Treasures of Paradise."
"The Nun [letter "n"] at the
beginning of Surat 68 represents the light of Pre-eternity, out
of which Allah created all creations, and which is Muhammad
That is why He said in the same surat [verse 4]: 'Truly Thou
art of a sublime nature' -- that is: you were privileged
with that light from pre-eternity."
"Allah Almighty and Exalted told the
lower world, "Serve the one who serves Me and tire the one who
"Prayer is the pillar of every pious
person; Pilgrimage is the Jihad of every weak one; the Zakat of
the body is fasting; and the one who asks for Allah's grants
without performing good deeds is like one trying to shoot an
arrow without a bow."
"Open the door of provision by giving
donation; fence in your money with the payment of zakat; the
best is he who wastes not; planning is the foundation of your
life, and to act prudently is the basis of intellect."
"Whoever makes his parents sad has
denied their rights on him."
"The jurists are the trustees of the
If you find the jurists sticking to the company of the Sultans,
say to them, 'This is forbidden,' as the jurist cannot express
his honest opinion under the pressure of the Sultan's
"No food is better than God-fear and
there is nothing better than silence; no enemy is more powerful
than ignorance; no illness is greater than lying."
"If you see something you don't like in
your brother try to find from one to seventy excuses for him. If
you can't find an excuse, say, 'There might be an excuse but I
don't know it.'"
"If you hear a word from a Muslim which
is offensive, try to find a good meaning for it. If you don't
find a good meaning for it, say to yourself, 'I do not
understand what he said,' in order to keep harmony between
Ba Yazid Bistami
May Allah Be Well Pleased With Him
Bayazid's grandfather was a Zoroastrian from
Persia. Bayazid made a detailed study of the statutes of Islamic law
(shari`a) and practiced a strict regimen of self-denial
(zuhd). All his life he was assiduous in the practice of his
religious obligations and in observing voluntary worship.
He urged his students (murids) to put
their affairs in the hands of Allah and he encouraged them to accept
sincerely the pure doctrine of tawhid (the Oneness of God). This
doctrine consisted of five essentials: to keep the obligations according
to the Qur'an and Sunnah, to always speak the truth, to keep the heart
free from hatred, to avoid forbidden food and to shun innovations (bid`a).
One of his sayings was, "I have come to know
Allah through Allah, and I have come to know what is other than Allah
with the light of Allah." He said, "Allah has granted his servants
favors for the purpose of bringing them closer to Him. Instead they are
fascinated with the favors and are drifting farther from Him." And he
said, praying to Allah, "O Allah, You have created this creation without
their knowledge and You have placed on them a trust without their will.
If You don't help them who will help them?"
Bayazid said the ultimate goal of the Sufi is to
experience the vision of Allah in the Hereafter. To that effect he said,
"There are special servants of Allah who, if Allah veiled Himself from
their sight in Paradise, would implore Him to take them out of Paradise
just as the inhabitants of the Fire implore Him to release them from
He said about Allah's love for His servant, "If
Allah loves His servant He will grant three attributes that are the
proofs of His Love: generosity like the generosity of the ocean, and
favor like the favor of the Sun in its giving of light, and modesty like
the modesty of the Earth. The true lover never considers any affliction
too great and never decreases his worship because of his pure faith."
A man asked Bayazid, "Show me a deed by which I
will approach my Lord." He said, "Love the friends of Allah in order
that they will love you. Love his saints until they love you. Because
Allah looks at the hearts of His saints and He will see your name
engraved in the heart of His saints and He will forgive you." For this
reason, the Naqshbandi followers have been elevated by their love for
their shaikhs. This love lifts them to a station of continuous pleasure
and continuous presence in the heart of their beloved.
Many Muslim scholars in his time, and many after
his time, said that Bayazid al-Bistami was the first one to spread the
Reality of Annihilation (fana'). Even that strictest of scholars,
Ibn Taymiyya, who came in the 7th Century A.H., admired Bayazid for this
and considered him to be one of his masters. Ibn Taymiyya said about
him, "There are two categories of fana': one is for the perfect
Prophets and saints, and one is for seekers from among the saints and
pious people (saliheen). Bayazid al-Bistami is from the first
category of those who experience fana', which means the complete
renunciation of anything other than God. He accepts none except God. He
worships none except Him, and he asks from none except Him." He
continues, quoting Bayazid saying, "I want not to want except what He
It was reported about Bayazid that he said, "I
divorced the lower world thrice in order that I could not return to it
and I moved to my Lord alone, without anyone, and I called on Him alone
for help by saying, 'O Allah, O Allah, no one remains for me except
You.' At that time I came to know the sincerity of my supplication in my
heart and the reality of the helplessness of my ego. Immediately the
acceptance of that supplication was perceived by my heart. This opened
to me a vision that I was no longer in existence and I vanished
completely from myself into His self. And He brought up all that I had
divorced before in front of me, and dressed me with light and with His
Bayazid said, "Praise to Me, for My greatest
Glory!" And he continued saying, "I set forth on an ocean when the
[earlier] prophets were still by the shore." And he said, "O My Lord,
Your obedience to me is greater than my obedience to You." This means,
"O God, You are granting my request and I have yet to obey You."
He said, "I made four mistakes in my preliminary
steps in this way: I thought that I remember Him and I know Him and I
love Him and I seek Him, but when I reached Him I saw that His
remembering of me preceded my remembrance of Him, and His knowledge
about me preceded my knowledge of Him and His love towards me was more
ancient than my love towards Him, and He sought me in order that I would
begin to seek Him."
Adh-Dhahabi quoted him in many great matters,
among which were "Praise to Me, for My greatest Glory!" and "There is
nothing in this robe I am wearing except Allah." Adh-Dhahabi's teacher
Ibn Taymiyya explained, "He didn't see himself as existing any longer,
but only saw the existence of Allah, due to his self-denial."
Adh-Dhahabi further relates, "He said, O Allah,
what is your Fire? It is nothing. Let me be the one person to go into
your Fire and everyone else will be saved. And what is your Paradise? It
is a toy for children. And who are those unbelievers who you want to
torture? They are your servants. Forgive them."
Ibn Hajar said, in reference to Bayazid's famous
utterances, "Allah knows the secret and Allah knows the heart. Whatever
Aba Yazid spoke from the Knowledge of Realities the people of his time
did not understand. They condemned him and exiled him seven times from
his city. Every time he was exiled, terrible afflictions would strike
the city until the people would call him back, pledge allegiance to him,
and accept him as a real saint."
Attar and Arusi relate that Bayazid said, when
he was exiled from his city, "O Blessed city, whose refuse is Bayazid!"
One time Bayazid said, "Allah the Most Just
called me into His Presence and said to me, 'O Bayazid how did you
arrive in My Presence?' I replied, 'Through zuhd, by renouncing
the world.' He said, 'The value of the lower world is like the wing of a
mosquito. What kind of renunciation have you come with?' I said, 'O
Allah, forgive me.' Then I said, 'O Allah, I came to you through
tawakkul, by dependence on You.' Then He said, 'Did I ever betray
the trust which I promised you?' I said, 'O Allah forgive me.' Then I
said, 'O Allah, I came to you through You.' At that time Allah said,
'Now We accept you.'"
He said, "I stood with the pious and I didn't
find any progress with them. I stood with the warriors in the cause and
I didn't find a single step of progress with them. I stood with those
who pray excessively and those who fast excessively and I didn't make a
footstep of progress. Then I said, 'O Allah, what is the way to You?'
and Allah said, 'Leave yourself and come.'"
Ibrahim Khawwas said, "The way that Allah showed
to him, with the most delicate word and the simplest explanation, was to
'leave your self-interest in the two worlds, the dunya and the
Hereafter, leave everything other than Me behind.' That is the best and
easiest way to come to Allah Almighty and Exalted, the most perfect and
highest state of affirming Oneness, not to accept anything or anyone
except Allah the Most High."
One of the followers of Dhul Nun al-Misri was
following Bayazid. Bayazid asked him, "Who do you want?" He replied, "I
want Bayazid." He said, "O my son, Bayazid is wanting Bayazid for forty
years and is still not finding him." That disciple of Dhul Nun then went
to him and narrated this incident to him. On hearing it Dhul Nun
fainted. He explained later saying, "My master Bayazid has lost himself
in Allah's love. That causes him to try to find himself again."
They asked him, "Teach us about how you reached
true Reality." He said, "By training myself, by seclusion." They said,
"How?" He said, "I called my self to accept Allah Almighty and Exalted,
and it resisted. I took an oath that I would not drink water and I would
not taste sleep until I brought my self under my control."
He also said, "O Allah! it is not strange that I
love You because I am a weak servant, but it is strange that You love me
when You are the King of Kings."
He said, "For thirty years, when I wanted to
remember Allah and do dhikr I used to wash my tongue and my mouth for
He said, "As long as the servant thinks that
there is among the Muslims someone lower than himself, that servant
still has pride."
They asked him, "Describe your day and describe
your night." He said, "I don't have a day and I don't have a night,
because day and night are for those who have characteristics of
creation. I have shed my self the way the snake sheds its skin."
Of Sufism Bayazid said: "It it to give up rest
and to accept suffering."
Of the obligation to follow a guide, he said:
"Who does not have a sheikh, his sheikh is Satan."
Of seeking God he said, "Hunger is a rain cloud.
If a servant becomes hungry, Allah will shower his heart with wisdom."
Of his intercession he said, "If Allah will give
me permission to intercede for all the people of my time I will not be
proud, because I am only interceding for a piece of clay," and "If Allah
gave me permission for intercession, first I would intercede for those
who harmed me and those who denied me."
To a young man who wanted a piece of his old
cloak for baraka (blessing), Bayazid said: "Should you take all
Bayazid's skin and wear it as yours, it would avail you nothing unless
you followed his example."
They said to him, "The key for Paradise is 'La
ilaha ill-Allah' (witnessing that there is no god except Allah)." He
said, "It is true, but a key is for opening a lock; and the key of such
witnessing can only operate under the following conditions:
1) a tongue which doesn't lie nor backbite;
2) a heart without betrayal;
3) a stomach without h aram or doubtful provision;
4) deeds without desire or innovation."
He said, "The ego or self always looks at the
world and the ruh (spirit) always looks at the next life and
ma`rifat (spiritual knowledge) always looks at Allah Almighty and
Exalted. He whose self defeats him is from those who are destroyed, and
he whose spirit is victorious over his self, he is of the pious, and he
whose spiritual knowledge overcomes his self, he is of the
Ad-Dailami said, "One time I asked `Abdur Rahman
bin Yahya about the state of trust in Allah (tawakkul). He
said, "If you put your hand in the mouth of a lion, don't be afraid of
other than Allah." I went in my heart to visit and ask Bayazid about
this matter. I knocked and I heard from inside, "Wasn't what `Abdur
Rahman said to you enough? You came only to ask, and not with the
intention of visiting me." I understood and I came again another time
one year later, knocking at his door. This time he answered, "Welcome my
son, this time you came to me as a visitor and not as a questioner."
They asked him "When does a man become a man?"
He said, "When he knows the mistakes of his self and he busies himself
in correcting them."
He said, "I was twelve years the blacksmith of
my self, and five years the polisher of the mirror of my heart, and for
one year I was looking in that mirror and I saw on my belly the girdle
of unbelief. I tried hard to cut it and I spent twelve years in that
effort. Then I looked in that mirror and I saw inside my body that
girdle. I spent five years cutting it. Then I spent one year looking at
what I had done. And Allah opened for me the vision of all creations.
And I saw all of them dead. And I prayed four takbiras of
janaza (funeral prayer) over them."
He said one time: "If the Throne and what is
around it and what is in it were placed in the corner of the heart of a
Knower, they would be lost completely inside it."
Of Bayazid's state, al-`Abbas ibn Hamza related
the following: "I prayed behind Bayazid the Dhuhr prayer, and when he
raised his hands to say 'Allahu Akbar' he was unable to pronounce the
words, in fear of Allah's Holy Name, and his entire body was trembling
and the sound of bones breaking came from him; I was seized by fear."
Munawi relates that one day, Bayazid attended
the class of a faqih (jurisprudent) who was explaining the laws
of inheritance: "When a man dies and leaves such-and-such, his son will
have such-and-such, etc." Bayazid exclaimed: "O faqih, O faqih!
What would you say of a man who died leaving nothing but God?" People
began to cry, and Bayazid continued: "The slave possesses nothing; when
he dies, he leaves nothing but his own master. He is such as Allah
created him in the beginning." And he recited: "You shall return to
us alone, as we created you the first time" [6:94].
Sahl at-Tustari sent a letter to Bayazid which
read: "Here is a man who drank a drink which leaves him forever
refreshed." Bayazid replied: "Here is a man who has drunk all
existences, but whose mouth is dry and burn with thirst."
When Bayazid died, he was over seventy years
old. Before he died, someone asked him his age. He said: "I am four
years old. For seventy years I was veiled. I got rid of my veils only
four years ago." The 39th Sheikh of the Golden Chain, Sultan al-Awliya
Sheikh `Abdullah Daghestani, referred to this saying in his encounter
who told him, as he was pointing to the graves of some great scholars in
a Muslim cemetary: "This one is three years old; that one, seven; that
Bayazid died in 261 H. It is said he is buried
in two places, one is Damascus and the other is Bistam in Persia.
Hassan `Ali ibn Ja`far al-Kharqani
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was the Ghawth
(Arch-Intercessor) of his time and unique in his station. He was the
Qiblah (focus of attention) of his people and an Ocean of Knowledge
from which saints still receive waves of light and spiritual knowledge.
He devoided himself of everything
except Allah's Oneness, refusing for himself all titles and aspirations.
He would not be known as a follower of any science, even a spiritual
science, and he said: "I am not a rahib (hermit). I am not a
zahid (ascetic). I am not a speaker. I am not a Sufi. O Allah, You
are One, and I am one in Your Oneness."
Of knowledge and practice he said:
"Scholars and servants in the
lower world are numerous but they don't benefit you unless you
are engaged in the satisfaction of Allah's desire, and from
morning to night are occupied with the deeds that Allah
About being a Sufi he said:
"The Sufi is not the one who is
always carrying the prayer rug, nor the one who is wearing
patched clothes, nor the one who keeps certain customs and
appearances; but the Sufi is the one to whom everyone's focus is
drawn, although he is hiding himself."
"The Sufi is the one who in the
daylight doesn't need the sun and in the night doesn't need the
moon. The essence of Sufism is absolute nonexistence that has no
need of existence because there is no existence besides Allah's
He was asked about Truthfulness (Sidq).
He said, " Truthfulness is to speak your conscience."
Of the heart he said:
"What is the best thing? The
heart which is always in Remembrance of God (dhikr Allah)."
"The best of hearts is the
heart which contains nothing but the presence of Allah, Almighty
"Today it will have been 40
years that Allah has been looking in my heart and has seen
nothing except Himself. I have had nothing in my heart nor my
breast except Allah for 40 years; and while my ego is asking for
cold water and a drink of milk, I have not allowed it that for
40 years in order to control myself."
"The vision with the eyes of
the head doesn't bring happiness, but the vision with the eyes
of the heart and the secret that Allah gives to the soul will
bring out that happiness."
Of Bayazid he said:
"When Abu Yazid said, 'I want
not to want' that is exactly the wanting which is real desire
He was asked, "Who is the
appropriate person to speak about fana' (annihilation)
and baqa' (permanence)?" He answered, "That is knowledge
for the one who is as if suspended by a silk thread from the
heavens to the earth and a great cyclone comes and takes all
trees, houses, and mountains and throws them in the ocean until
it fills the ocean. If that cyclone is unable to move the one
who is hanging by the silk thread, then he is the one who can
speak on fana' and baqa'."
One time Sultan Mahmoud
al-Ghazi visited Abul Hassan and asked his opinion of Bayazid
al-Bistami. He said, "Whoever follows Bayazid is going to be
guided. And whoever saw him and felt love towards him in his
heart will reach a happy ending." At that Sultan Mahmoud said,
"How is that possible, when Abu Jahl saw the Prophet
and he was unable to reach a happy ending but rather ended up in
misery?" He answered, "It is because Abu Jahl didn't see the
but he saw Muhammad bin `Abdullah. And if he saw the Messenger
of Allah he would have been taken out of misery into happiness.
As Allah said, "You see them looking at you but without clear
vision" [7:198]. He continued with the saying already
quoted, "The vision with the eyes of the head..."
Other sayings of his:
"Ask for difficulties in order
for tears to appear because Allah loves those who cry,"
referring to the advice of the Prophet
to cry much.
"In whatever way you ask Allah
for anything, still the Qur'an is the best way. Don't ask Allah
except through the Qur'an."
"The Inheritor of the Prophet
is the one who follows his footsteps and never puts black marks
in his Book of Deeds."
Abul-Hasan al-Kharqani died on Tuesday,
10th of Muharram in 425 H. (1033 CE). He was buried in Kharqan, a
village of the city of Bistam in Persia.
`Ali al-Farmadhi at-Tusi
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He is called the Knower of the Merciful
and the Custodian of Divine Love. He was a scholar of the Shafi'i school
of jurisprudence and a unique `arif (endowed with spiritual
knowledge). He was deeply involved in both the School of the Salaf
(scholars of the First and Second Centuries) and that of the Khalaf
(later scholars), but he made his mark in the Science of Tasawwuf.
From it he extracted some of the heavenly knowledge which is mentioned
in Qur'an in reference to al-Khidr
We have taught him from our Heavenly Knowledge" [18:65].
Sparks of the light of jihad an-nafs
(self-struggle) were opened to his heart. He was known everywhere in his
time, until he became a very famous shaykh in Islamic Divine Law and
theology. The most famous shaykh of his time, as-Simnani, said about
him, "He was the Tongue of Khurasan and its shaykh and the master in
lifting up and raising the station of his followers. His associations
were like gardens full of flowers, in which knowledge flowed from his
heart and took the hearts of his listeners into a state of joy and
happiness." Among his teachers was al-Qushayri, the celebrated Sufi
Master, and al-Ghazali al-Kabir who said about him, "He was the shaykh
of his time and he had a unique way of reminding people. No one
surpassed him in his eloquence, delicacy, ethics, good manners,
morality, nor his ways of approaching people." The son of the latter,
Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, nicknamed Hujjat ul-Islam - the Proof of
Islam, took much from Farmadi in his Ihya `Ulum ad-Din.
One time he said, "I entered behind my
teacher, al-Qushayri, to the public bath, and from the well I took for
him a bucket of water which I had filled from the well myself. When my
teacher came he said, 'Who brought the water in the bucket?' I kept
quiet, as I felt I had committed some disrespect. He asked a second
time, 'Who brought the water?' I continued to keep quiet. He asked a
third time, 'Who filled that bucket with water?' I finally said, 'I did,
my teacher.' He said, 'O My son, what I received in seventy years, I
passed to you with one bucket of water.' That meant that the heavenly
and divine knowledge which he had struggled for seventy years to acquire
he passed to my heart through one glance."
On behavior towards one's master he
"If you are true in your love
of your shaykh, you have to keep respect with him."
On spiritual vision he said:
"For the `arif (Knower)
a time will come wherein the light of knowledge will reach him
and his eyes will see the incredible Unseen."
"Whoever pretends he can hear,
yet cannot hear the glorification of birds, trees and the wind,
is a liar."
"The hearts of the people of
Truth are open, and their hearing is open."
"Allah gives happiness to His
servants when they see His Saints." This is because the Prophet
said, "Whoever sees the face of a knower of God, sees me," and
also, "Whoever sees me, has seen Reality." Sufi Masters have
named the practice of concentrating on the face of the sheikh
(tasawwur), and it is done to the end of fulfilling that
"Whoever looks after the
actions of people will lose his way."
"Who prefers the company of the
rich over the company of the poor, Allah will send him the death
of the heart."
Imam Ghazali reports, "I heard that
Abul Hasan al-Farmadhi said, 'the Ninety-nine Attributes of Allah will
become attributes and descriptions of the seeker in the way of Allah.'"
He died in 447 H. and he was buried in
the village Farmadh, a suburb of the city of Tus.
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Abu Hamid al-Tusi al-Ghazzali
[or al-Ghazali] al-Shafi`i (450-505), "the Proof of Islam" (Hujja
al-Islam), "Ornament of the Faith," "Gatherer of the Multifarious
Sciences," "Great Siddîq," absolute mujtahid, a major Shafi'i jurist,
heresiographer and debater, expert in the principles of doctrine and
those of jurisprudence.
Shaykh Yusuf al-Qaradawi
stated that, like 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz and al-Shafi'i for their
respective times, al-Ghazzali is unanimously considered the Renewer of
the Fifth Islamic Century. Ibn al-Subki writes: "He came at a time when
people stood in direr need of replies against the philosophers than the
darkest night stands in need of the light of the moon and stars."
Among his teachers in law, debate, and principles: Ahmad ibn Muhammad
al-Râdhakâni in Tus, Abu Nasr al-Isma'ili in Jurjan, and Imam al-Haramayn
Abu al-Ma'ali al-Juwayni in Naysabur, from where he departed to Baghdad
after the latter's death. Ibn 'Asakir also mentions that al-Ghazzali
took al-Bukhari's Sahih from Abu Sahl Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hafsi. Among
his other shaykhs in hadith were Nasr ibn 'Ali ibn Ahmad al-Hakimi al-Tusi,
'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khawari, Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn
Muhammad al-Suja`i al-Zawzani, the hadith master Abu al-Fityan 'Umar ibn
Abi al-Hasan al-Ru'asi al-Dahistani, and Nasr ibn Ibrahim al-Maqdisi.
Among his shaykhs in tasawwuf were al-Fadl ibn Muhammad ibn 'Ali al-Farmadi
al-Tusi ( one of Abu al-Qasim al-Qushayri's students ) and Yusuf al-Sajjaj
Ya`qub Yusuf ibn Ayyab ibn Yusuf ibn al-Husayn al-Hamadani
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was one of the rarest Knowers
of God, a Pillar in the Sunnah of the Prophet
unique saint. He was an imam (religious leader), an `alim
(religious scholar), and a `arif (spiritual knower of God). He
was the master of his time in raising the stations of his followers.
Scholars and pious people used to flood in huge numbers into his
khaniqah (retreat) in the city of Merv, in present-day Turkmenistan,
to listen to him.
Born in Buzanjird near Hamadan in 440
H., he moved from Hamadan to Baghdad when he was eighteen years of age.
He studied the Shafi'i school of fiqh under the supervision of the
master of his time, Shaykh Ibrahim ibn `Ali ibn Yusuf al-Fairuzabadi. He
kept association in Baghdad with the great scholar, Abu Ishaq ash-Shirazi,
who gave him greater deference than to any of his other students
although he was the youngest.
He was so brilliant a jurisprudent that
he became the marja` (reference) of his time for all scholars in
that field. He was known in Baghdad, the center of Islamic knowledge, in
Isfahan, Bukhara, Samarqand, Khwarazm, and throughout Central Asia.
Later in his life he secluded himself
and left the world behind. He became an ascetic and engaged in constant
worship and mujahada (spiritual struggle). He associated with
Shaykh Abdullah Ghuwayni and Shaykh Hasan Simnani, but his secret was
given him by Shaykh Abu `Ali al-Farmadhi. He made progress in
self-denial and contemplation until he became the Ghawth
(Arch-Intercessor) of his time. He was known as the Rain of Realities
and Truth and Spiritual Knowledge. He finally settled in Merv. Through
him countless miraculous events occurred.
From His Miracles
He reflected the Divine attribute of
Severity (al-Qahhar) with those who opposed the dissemination of
spirituality. Following are two of his miraculous deeds in that respect:
One day he was holding an association
in which he was enlightening the listeners with heavenly knowledge. Two
literalist scholars who were present said, "Keep quiet, because you are
devising innovation." He said to them, "Do not talk about matters that
you do not understand. It is better for you to die than to remain." As
he spoke these words they immediately fell dead.
Ibn Hajar al-Haythami records in his
book Al-Fatawa al-Hadithiyya, "Abu Sa`id Abdullah ibn Abi `Asran,
the Imam of the School of Shafi'i, said, 'When I began a search for
religious knowledge I accompanied my friend, Ibn as-Saqa, who was a
student in the Nizamiya School, and it was our custom to visit the
pious. We heard that there was in Baghdad a man named Yusuf al-Hamadani
who was known as al-Ghawth, and that he was able to appear
whenever he liked and was able to disappear whenever he liked. So I
decided to visit him along with Ibn as-Saqa and Shaykh Abdul Qadir al-Jilani,
who was a young man at that time. Ibn as-Saqa said, 'When we visit
Shaykh Yusuf al-Hamadani I am going to ask him a question the answer to
which he will not know.' I said, 'I am also going to ask him a question
and I want to see what he is going to say.' Shaykh 'Abdul Qadir al-Jilani
said, 'O Allah, protect me from asking a saint like Yusuf Hamadani a
question, but I will go into his presence asking for his baraka
blessings and Divine Knowledge.'
'We entered his association. He veiled
himself from us and we didn't see him until after one hour had passed.
He looked at Ibn as-Saqa angrily and said, without having been informed
of his name, 'O Ibn as-Saqa, how dare you ask me a question when your
intention is to confound me?' Your question is this and your answer is
this!' Then he said to Ibn Saqa, 'I am seeing the fire of kufr
(unbelief) burning in your heart.' He looked at me and said, 'O
`Abdallah, are you asking me a question and awaiting my answer? Your
question is this and your answer is this. Let the people be sad for you
because they are losing as a result of your disrespect for me.' Then he
looked at Shaykh 'Abdul Qadir al-Jilani and said to him, 'Approach, my
son. I am going to bless you. O `Abdul Qadir, you have satisfied Allah
and His Prophet
your proper respect for me. I see you in the future sitting on the
highest place in Baghdad and speaking and guiding people and saying to
them that your feet are on the neck of every wali (saint). And I
am seeing every wali of your time bowing to you because of your great
station and honor.'"
Ibn Hajar al-Haythami continues,
"`Abdul Qadir has been lifted up and all that shaykh al-Hamadani said
about him came to pass. There came a time when he did say, 'My feet are
on the necks of all the awliya (saints),' and he was a reference
and a beacon guiding all people in his time to their destinations."
"The fate of Ibn as-Saqa was something
else. He was brilliant in his knowledge of the Law of Islam. He preceded
all the scholars in his time. He used to debate with the scholars of his
time and overcome them, until the khalif called him to be a member of
his court. One day the khalif sent him as a messenger to the King of
Byzantium, who in his turn called all the priests and scholars of
Christianity to debate him. Ibn as-Saqa was able to defeat all of them
in debate. They were helpless to give answers in his presence. He gave
them answers that made them look like mere students in his presence.
"His brilliance fascinated the King of
Byzantium so that he invited him to his private family gathering. There
Ibn as-Saqa's eyes fell on the daughter of the King. He immediately fell
in love with her, and asked her father, the King, for her hand in
marriage. She refused except on condition that he accept her religion.
He did, leaving Islam and accepting the Christian religion of the
princess. After his marriage he became seriously ill. They threw him out
of the palace. He became a town beggar, asking everyone for food, yet no
one would provide for him. Darkness had come over his face.
"One day he saw someone that had known
him before. That person relates: 'I asked him, 'What happened to you?'
He replied, 'There was a temptation that I fell into.' The man asked
him, 'Do you remember anything from the Holy Qur'an?' He replied, 'I
only remember rubbama yawaddu-l-ladheena kafaru law kanu muslimeen
('Again and again will those who disbelieve wish that they were
"'He was trembling as if he was giving
up his last breath. I turned him towards the Ka'aba (the West), but he
kept turning towards the East. Then I turned him back towards Ka'aba,
but he turned himself to the East. I turned him a third time, but he
turned himself to the East. Then as his soul was passing from him, he
said, 'O Allah that is the result of my disrespect to Your
Arch-intercessor Yusuf al-Hamadani.'"
Imam Haythami continues: "Ibn `Asran
said, 'I went to Damascus and the king there, Nuridin ash-Shaheed, put
me in charge of the department of religious affairs, and I accepted. As
a result, the worldly life came at me from every side: provision,
sustenance, fame, money, position for the rest of my life. That is what
the Arch-intercessor Yusuf al-Hamadani had predicted for me.'"
From His Sayings
Yusuf al-Hamadani's (q) aphorisms
illustrate his high station among the saints. He said:
"The opening of the faculty of
Spiritual Hearing in the Friends of Allah is like a Message from
Reality, a Chapter in the Book of Allah, a blessing from the
Knowledge of the Unseen. It is the beginning of the opening of
the Heart and its unveiling -- good tidings from the Heavenly
Stations! It is the dawn of understanding of Divine Meanings.
This hearing is sustenance for the spirit and life for the
heart. It is the Subsistence (baqa) of the Secret
(sirr). Allah makes Himself Witness for the visions of His
Chosen Servants, and dresses them with His blessed acts and
decorates them with His Attributes.
"Of his saints, He makes one
group hear through His Exalted Witnessing (shuhada at-tanzih);
He makes others hear through His Unique Oneness (wahdaniyya);
He makes another group of them hear through His Mercy (rahma).
And He makes some hear through His Power (qudra).
"Let it be known to you, O Man,
that Allah has created from the Light of His Manifestations
70,000 angels and assigned them to various stations between the
Throne (`arsh) and the Chair (kursi). In
the Presence of Intimacy (uns), their dress is green
wool, their faces are like the full moon, they stand in His
Presence in awe, fainting, drunk with His Love, running
endlessly from the Throne to the Chair and back because of the
emotion and the mercy which is burning in their hearts. Those
are the Sufis of the Heavens and Israfil (the angel who will
blow the Trumpet on the Judgement Day) is their leader and their
guide, and Jibril is their president and their speaker, and
al-Haqq (Allah) is their King. Allah's blessings are upon them."
This is how Yusuf al-Hamadani (q), the
Shadow of God on Earth, used to describe the heavenly reality and
exalted stations of the Sufis. May Allah bless his soul and sanctify
He died in Khorasan, between Herat and
Bakshur, on the 12th of Rabi`ul-Awwal, 535 H., and was buried in Merv.
Near his tomb was built a large mosque and a large school.
Nabi Abul `Abbas, al-Khidr
On him be Allah's Blessings and Peace
Abul `Abbas is Khidr
Allah mentioned in the Holy Qur'an [18:65f.] as the servant of Allah
who met with the Prophet Musa
preserved and maintained the Reality of the Golden Chain until the
next link in the Chain, `Abdul Khaliq, could assume his destined
Imam Bukhari relates in
the Book of Prophets that the Prophet
"Al-Khidr ('the Green Man') was so named because he sat on a barren
white land once, after which it turned luxuriantly green with
The important role of
Khidr as the
murshid (initiator) of saints may be illustrated by the importance
of his role as the murshid of prophets, particularly of the Prophet Musa
was a highly powerful prophet, one of the five greatest ones whom Allah
sent to this world: Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, Peace and
blessings be upon them. Yet despite Moses' elevated knowledge, Allah
caused him to be in need of Khidr, even though Khidr was not a prophet.
This is to teach us, as Allah said in the Holy Qur'an, that "Above
every knower there is a greater knower" (Yusuf, 76).
The story of Moses'
encounter with Khidr is related in Surat al-Kahf (65-82) and goes thus:
Moses and his servant found one of Allah's servants whom Allah had
honored uniquely and had taught knowledge from His Own Presence. Moses
said to him, "I would like to accompany you." He answered him: "You
cannot bear to accompany me." Moses was surprised and insisted he was
able to do so. Khidr said: "You cannot, but if you do, do not ask about
what I am doing no matter what you see me do. On that condition alone
you may follow; but if you wish to ask questions, don't follow me." This
meant that Khidr was going to do something that Moses would not
understand, although he was the Messenger of a great religion. He was in
need of Khidr to teach him something.
They took a boat and
crossed the Tiberias River in Palestine. When they had reached the
middle of the river, Khidr made a hole in the boat in order for it to
sink. Moses was unable to keep silent, saying: "Why are you doing this
childish act? Those people gave you the boat, are you now scuttling it?"
Khidr replied: "Did I not tell you you would be unable to keep company
with me?" Moses had not yet understood, even though he was a prophet and
could read hearts, that there was something taking place that he did not
know. They continued and found a young boy. As soon as they saw him,
Khidr killed him. Moses said: "What are you doing? You sank a boat, and
now you kill a child? This is against all laws!" Again Khidr said: "Did
I not tell you you could not keep company with me? The third time you
ask me, we will part ways." Then they reached a city where they asked
for food. No one gave them any food, and they threw them out. On their
way, they found a wall on the verge of collapse. Khidr rebuilt that wall
and made it straight. Moses asked: "Why are you doing this? No one
accepted us as their guests in this city, and yet you are building their
wall for them?" Khidr said: "This is the point where we separate, for
you did not understand the wisdom of what I am doing."
"O Moses, what we do is
what Allah tells us to do. First I caused this boat to sink because
there is a tyrant who is seizing every boat from the poor people on this
side of the city. In order for these people not to lose their boat, I
made it sink. That tyrant is going to die tomorrow, and tomorrow they
can retrieve their boat and use it safely. I killed the child because
Allah did not want that child to cause his parents, who believe in you,
to leave and run away from your religion. Allah will give them better
children than him. I built the wall which belonged to a man who was in
life very generous to the poor. When he passed away, he left a treasure
buried under the wall for his two orphans. Were that wall to come down,
people would see the treasure and take it. I restored it in order for
the two children to receive their treasure later. You did not understand
That was Moses who, with
all the honor bestowed on him by God, found himself ignorant before
Khidr. How can we, who know so little in comparison to Moses, consider
ourselves knowledgeable if Moses himself, with all his knowledge in the
Divine Presence, was unable to understand certain things? This is a
lesson in humility for human beings, and particularly for scholars and
religious leaders: "Your knowledge is not worth mentioning. There are
others more and highly more knowledgeable than you. As high or deep as
you travel into knowledge, there is deeper depth and higher height than
where you stand."
That is why, when
someone sits to give advice, he must sit with complete humbleness and
complete respect for the listener. He cannot consider himself higher
than them, otherwise that light will never reach their hearts. That is
also why each is in need of a guide, as was shown by the Guide of guides
himself, the Prophet ,
when he took Jibril
guide for Revelation, and when he took a guide in traveling to Madina.
This is how Ibn `Arabi
(q) in Fusus al-hikam explains the three acts of Khidr
witnessed by Musa
tested 'by many ordeals' [20:41] the first of which was
the murder of the Egyptian [28:14-15], an act which he committed
by Divine impulsion and with the approbation of God deep inside
him, without however, his perceiving it; nevertheless he felt no
affliction in his soul for having killed the Egyptian, although
he himself was not acquitted until he had received a Divine
revelation on the subject. For all prophets are interiorly
preserved from sin without their being conscious of it, even
before they are warned by inspiration.
"It is for that
reason that al-Khidr showed him the putting to death of the boy,
an action for which Moses reproached him, without remembering
his murder of the Egyptian, upon which al-Khidr said to him: 'I
have not done it of my own initiative,' recalling thus to Moses
the state in which he, the latter, found himself when he did not
yet know that he was essentially preserved from all action
contrary to the Divine Order.
"He showed him
also the perforation of the boat, apparently made to destroy the
people, but which has, however, the hidden sense of saving them
from the hand of a 'violent man.' He showed this to him as an
analogy to the ark which hid Moses when he was thrown into the
Nile; according to appearances, this act was equally to destroy
him, but according to the hidden sense, it was to save him.
Again his mother had done that for fear of the 'violent man,' in
this case Pharaoh, so that he would not cruelly kill the
then at Madyan, there met the two girls and for them drew water
from the well, without asking from them a salary. Then he
'withdrew to the shade,' that is to say to the Divine shadow,
and said: 'O my Lord, I am poor with regard to the blessings
Thou bestowest on Me'; he attributed, then, to God alone the
essence of the good that he did and qualified himself as poor
(faqir) towards God. It was for that reason that al-Khidr
reconstructed before him the crumbling wall without asking a
salary for his work, for which Moses reprimanded him, until
Khidr reminded him of his action of drawing water without asking
for reward, and other things too, of which there is no mention
in the Koran; so that the Messenger of God -- may God bless him
and give him Peace! -- regretted that Moses did not keep quiet
and did not remain with al-Khidr, so that God could tell him
more of their actions."
Of Khidr's sayings to
Sahl at-Tustari (q) according to Ibn `Arabi:
the Light of Muhammad
from His Light... This Light stayed before Allah for 100,000
years. Allah directed His Gaze upon it 70,000 times every day
and night, adding to it a new light from His Light every time.
Then, from that Light, He created all creations."
When the Prophet
this world and condolence came, they heard a voice from the corner of
the house saying, "Peace, God's mercy and blessings be upon you, members
of the Family of the Prophet
(r) then asked if they knew who this was, and he said it was Khidr
Bayhaqi transmitted it in Dala'il an-Nubuwwa.
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
"The lights of some people precede
their dhikr, while the dhikr of some people precede their lights.
There is the one who does (loud) dhikr so that his heart be
illumined; and there is the one whose heart has been illumined and
he does (silent) dhikr."
He was known as the Shaikh of Miracles,
One Who Shone Like the Sun, and he was the Master of the high stations
of spirituality of his time. He was a Perfect Knower (carif
kamil) in sufism and accomplished in asceticism. He is considered
the Fountainhead of this Honorable Sufi Order and the Wellspring of the
Khwajagan (Masters of Central Asia).
His father was Shaikh 'Abdul Jamil, one
of the most famous scholars in Byzantine times in both external and
internal knowledge. His mother was a princess, the daughter of the king
of Seljuk Anatolia.
Abdul Khaliq was born in Ghujdawan, a
town near Bukhara in present-day Uzbekistan. There he lived and passed
his life and was buried. He was a descendant of Imam Malik (r). In his
childhood he studied the Qur'an and its tafsir (exegesis), 'ilm
al-Hadith (the study of Prophetic Traditions), the sciences of the
Arabic language, and Jurisprudence with Shaikh Sadruddin. After
mastering Sharica (the legal sciences)
he moved on to jihad an-nafs (spiritual struggle), until he
reached a high station of purity. He then moved to Damascus, where he
established a school from which many students graduated. Each became a
master of fiqh and hadith as well as spirituality, both in the regions
of Central Asia as well as in the Middle East.
The author of the book al-Hada'iq
al-Wardiyya tells us how he reached his high station within the
Golden Chain: "He met Khidr (as) and accompanied him. He took from him
heavenly knowledge and added it to the spiritual knowledge he had
obtained from his shaikh, Yusuf al-Hamadani.
"One day when he was reading the Qur'an
in the presence of Shaikh Sadruddin, he came upon the following ayat:
"Call unto your Sustainer humbly, and in the secrecy of your hearts.
Verily, He loves not those who transgress the bounds of what is right"
[7:55]. This ayat prompted him to inquire of Shaikh Sadruddin about the
reality of silent Dhikr and its method. Abdul Khaliq put his question
thus: "In loud dhikr you have to use your tongue and people might listen
to you and see you, whereas in the silent dhikr of the heart Shaytan
might listen to you and hear you, since the Prophet
in his holy hadith: 'Satan moves freely in the veins and arteries of the
Sons of Adam.' What, then, O my Shaikh Sadruddin, is the reality of
'Call in the secrecy of your hearts?' His shaikh replied, 'O my son,
this is a hidden, heavenly knowledge, and I wish that Allah Exalted and
Almighty send you one of his saints to inspire on your tongue and in
your heart the reality of secret dhikr.'
"From that time Shaikh Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani
waited for that prayer to be fulfilled. One day he met Khidr
told him, 'Now, my son, I have permission from the Prophet
inspire on your tongue and in your heart the hidden dhikr with its
numbers.' He ordered him to submerge himself under water and to begin
making dhikr in his heart (LA ILAHA ILLALLAH MUHAMMADUN RASUL ALLAH). He
did this form of dhikr every day, until the Light of the Divine, the
Wisdom of the Divine, the Love of the Divine and the Attraction of the
Divine were opened to his heart. Because of those gifts people began to
be drawn to Abdul Khaliq and sought to follow in his footsteps, and he
took them to follow in the footsteps of the Prophet
"He was the first one in this honorable
Sufi Order to use the Silent Dhikr and he was considered the master of
that form of Dhikr. When his spiritual shaikh, al-Ghawth ar-Rabbani,
Yusuf al-Hamadani, came to Bukhara, he spent his time in serving him. He
said about him, 'When I became 22 years of age, Shaikh Yusuf al-Hamadani
ordered Khidr to keep raising me and to keep an eye on me until my
Shaikh Mu ammad Parsa, a friend and
biographer of Shah Naqshband, said in his book Faslul-Kitab, that
the method of Khwaja Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani in dhikr and the
teachings of his Eight Principles were embraced and hailed by all 40
tariqats as the way of truth and loyalty, the way of consciousness in
following the Sunnah the Prophet, by leaving innovation and by
scrupulously opposing low desires. Because of that he became the Master
of his time and the First in this line of spirituality.
His reputation as an accomplished
spiritual Master became widespread. Visitors used to flock to see him
from every land. He gathered around him the loyal and sincere murids
that he was training and teaching. In this regard, he wrote a letter to
his son, al-Qalb al-Mubarak Shaykh Awliya al-Kabir, to specify the
conduct of followers of this Order. It says:
"O my son, I urge you to
acquire knowledge and righteous conduct and the fear of Allah.
Follow the steps of the pious Salaf (early generation). Hold
fast to the Sunnah of the Prophet
and keep company with sincere believers. Read jurisprudence and
life-history of the Prophet
and Quranic exegesis. Avoid ignorant charlatans, and keep the
prayer in congregation. Beware of fame and its danger. Be among
the ordinary people and do not seek positions. Don't enter into
friendship with kings and their children nor with the
innovators. Keep silent, don't eat excessively and don't sleep
excessively. Run away from people as you would run from lions.
Keep seclusion. Eat lawful food and leave doubtful actions
except in dire necessity. Keep away from love of the lower world
because it might fascinate you. Don't laugh too much, because
too much laughter will be the death of the heart. Don't
humiliate anyone. Don't praise yourself. Don't argue with
people. Don't ask anyone except Allah. Don't ask anyone to serve
you. Serve your shaikhs with your money and power and don't
criticize their actions. Anyone who criticizes them will not be
safe, because he doesn't understand them. Make your deeds
sincere by intending them only for Allah. Pray to Him with
humbleness. Make your business jurisprudence, your mosque your
house, and your Friend your Lord."
The Principles of the Naqshbandi Way
'Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani coined the
following phrases which are now considered the principles of the
Naqshbandi Sufi Order:
1. Conscious Breathing ("Hosh dar
Hosh means "mind." Dar
means "in." Dam means "breath." It means, according to Abdul
Khaliq al-Ghujdawani (q), that
"the wise seeker must safeguard
his breath from heedlessness, coming in and going out, thereby
keeping his heart always in the Divine Presence; and he must
revive his breath with worship and servitude and dispatch this
worship to His Lord full of life, for every breath which is
inhaled and exhaled with Presence is alive and connected with
the Divine Presence. Every breath inhaled and exhaled with
heedlessness is dead, disconnected from the Divine Presence."
Ubaidullah al-Ahrar (q) said, "The most
important mission for the seeker in this Order is to safeguard his
breath, and he who cannot safeguard his breath, it would be said of him,
'he lost himself.'"
Shah Naqshband (q) said, "This Order is
built on breath. So it is a must for everyone to safeguard his breath in
the time of his inhalation and exhalation and further, to safeguard his
breath in the interval between the inhalation and exhalation."
Shaikh Abul Janab Najmuddin al-Kubra
said in his book, Fawatih al-Jamal, "Dhikr is flowing in the body
of every single living creatures by the necessity of their breath --
even without will -- as a sign of obedience, which is part of their
creation. Through their breathing, the sound of the letter "Ha" of the
Divine Name Allah is made with every exhalation and inhalation
and it is a sign of the Unseen Essence serving to emphasize the
Uniqueness of God. Therefore it is necessary to be present with that
breathing, in order to realize the Essence of the Creator."
The name 'Allah' which encompasses the
ninety-nine Names and Attributes consists of four letters, Alif, Lam,
Lam and the same Hah (ALLAH). The people of Sufism say that the absolute
unseen Essence of Allah Exalted and Almighty is expressed by the last
letter vowelized by the Alif, "Ha." It represents the Absolutely Unseen
"He-ness" of the Exalted God (Ghayb al-Huwiyya al-Mutlaqa lillah
'azza wa jall). The first Lam is for the sake of identification (tacrif)
and the second Lam is for the sake of emphasis (mubalagha).
Safeguarding your breath from
heedlessness will lead you to complete Presence, and complete Presence
will lead you to complete Vision, and complete Vision will lead you to
complete Manifestation of Allah's Ninety-Nine Names and Attributes.
Allah leads you to the Manifestation of His Ninety-Nine Names and
Attributes and all His other Attributes, because it is said, "Allah's
Attributes are as numerous as the breaths of human beings."
It must be known by everyone that
securing the breath from heedlessness is difficult for seekers.
Therefore they must safeguard it by seeking forgiveness (istighfar)
because seeking forgiveness will purify it and sanctify it and prepare
the seeker for the Real Manifestation of Allah everywhere.
2. Watch Your Step ("Nazar bar
It means that the seeker while walking
must keep his eyes on his feet. Wherever he is about to place his feet,
his eyes must be there. He is not allowed to send cast his glance here
or there, to look right or left or in front of him, because unnecessary
sights will veil the heart. Most veils on the heart are created by the
pictures which are transmitted from your eyes to your mind during your
daily living. These may disturb your heart with turbulence because of
the different kinds of desire which have been imprinted on your mind.
These images are like veils on the heart. They block the Light of the
Divine Presence. This is why Sufi saints don't allow their followers,
who have purified their hearts through constant Dhikr, to look at other
than their feet. Their hearts are like mirrors, reflecting and receiving
every image easily. This might distract them and bring impurities to
their hearts. So the seeker is ordered to lower his gaze in order not to
be assailed by the arrows of devils.
Lowering the gaze is also a sign of
humility; proud and arrogant people never look at their feet. It is also
an indication that one is following the footsteps of the Prophet
when he walked never used to look right or left, but used to look only
at his feet, moving steadfastly towards his destination. It is also the
sign of a high state when the seeker looks nowhere except towards his
Lord. Like one who intends to reach a destination quickly, so too the
seeker of Allah's Divine Presence is moving quickly, not looking to his
right or his left, not looking at the desires of this world, but looking
only for the Divine Presence.
Imam ar-Rabbani Ahmad al-Faruqi (q)
said in the 295th letter of his Maktubat:
"The gaze precedes the step and
the step follows the gaze. The Ascension to the high state is
first by the Vision, followed by the Step. When the Step reaches
the level of the Ascension of the Gaze, then the Gaze will be
lifted up to another state, to which the Step follows in its
turn. Then the Gaze will be lifted even higher and the Step will
follow in its turn. And so on until the Gaze reaches a state of
Perfection to which it will pull the Step. We say, 'When the
Step follows the Gaze, the murid has reached the state of
Readiness in approaching the Footsteps of the Prophet, peace be
upon him. So the Footsteps of the Prophet
are considered the Origin of all steps.'"
Shah Naqshband (q) said, "If we look at
the mistakes of our friends, we will be left friendless, because no one
3. Journey Homeward ("safar dar
It means to travel to one's homeland.
It means that the seeker travels from the world of creation to the world
of the Creator. It is related that the Prophet
"I am going to my Lord from one state to a better state and from one
station to a higher station." It is said that the seeker must travel
from the Desire for the forbidden to the Desire for the Divine Presence.
The Naqshbandi Sufi Order divides that
travel into two categories. The first is external journeying and the
second is internal journeying. External travel is to travel from one
land to another searching for a perfect guide to take and direct you to
your destination. This enables you to move to the second category, the
internal journey. Seekers, once they have found a perfect guide, are
forbidden to go on another external journey. In the external journey
there are many difficulties which beginners cannot endure without
falling into forbidden actions, because they are weak in their worship.
The second category is internal
journeying. Internal journeying requires the seeker to leave his low
manners and move to high manners, to throw out of his heart all worldly
desires. He will be lifted from a state of uncleanness to a state of
purity. At that time he will no longer be in need of more internal
journeying. He will have purified his heart, making it pure like water,
transparent like crystal, polished like a mirror, showing the realities
of all matters essential for his daily life, without any need for
external action on his part. In his heart will appear everything that is
needed for his life and for the life of those around him.
4. Solitude in the Crowd ("khalwat
"Khalwat" means seclusion. It
means to be outwardly with people while remaining inwardly with God.
There are also two categories of seclusion. The first is external
seclusion and the second is internal seclusion.
External seclusion requires the seeker
to seclude himself in a private place that is empty of people. Staying
there by himself, he concentrates and meditates on Dhikrullah,
the remembrance of God, in order to reach a state in which the Heavenly
Realm becomes manifest. When you chain the external senses, your
internal senses will be free to reach the Heavenly Realm. This will
bring you to the second category: the internal seclusion.
The internal seclusion means seclusion
among people. Therein the heart of the seeker must be present with his
Lord and absent from the Creations while remaining physically present
among them. It is said, "The seeker will be so deeply involved in the
silent Dhikr in his heart that, even if he enters a crowd of people, he
will not hear their voices. The state of Dhikr overcomes him. The
manifestation of the Divine Presence is pulling him and making him
unaware of all but his Lord. This is the highest state of seclusion, and
is considered the true seclusion, as mentioned in the Holy Qur'an:
"Men whom neither business nor profit distract from the recollection of
God" [24:37]. This is the way of the Naqshbandi Order.
The primary seclusion of the shaykhs of
the Naqshbandi Order is the internal seclusion. They are with their Lord
and simultaneously they are with the people. As the Prophet said, "I
have two sides: one faces my Creator and one faces creation." Shah
Naqshband emphasized the goodness of gatherings when he said:
Tariqatuna as-suhbat wa-l-khairu fil-jamciyyat
("Our Way is Companionship, and Goodness is in the Gathering").
It is said that the believer who can
mingle with people and carry their difficulties is better than the
believer who keeps away from people. On that delicate point Imam Rabbani
"It must be known that the
seeker at the beginning might use the external seclusion to
isolate himself from people, worshipping and concentrating on
Allah, Almighty and Exalted, until he reaches a higher state. At
that time he will be advised by his shaikh, in the words of
Sayyid al-Kharraz, 'Perfection is not in exhibitions of
miraculous powers, but perfection is to sit among people, sell
and buy, marry and have children; and yet never leave the
presence of Allah even for one moment.'"
5. Essential Remembrance ("yad
The meaning of 'Yad' is Dhikr. The
meaning of 'kard' is the essence of Dhikr. The seeker must make
Dhikr by negation and affirmation on his tongue until he reaches the
state of the contemplation of his heart (muraqaba). That state
will be achieved by reciting every day the negation (LA ILAHA) and
affirmation (ILLALLAH) on the tongue, between 5,000 and 10,000 times,
removing from his heart the elements that tarnish and rust it. This
dhikr polishes the heart and takes the seeker into the state of
Manifestation. He must keep that daily dhikr, either by heart or by
tongue, repeating ALLAH, the name of God's Essence which encompasses all
other names and Attributes, or by negation and affirmation through the
saying of LA ILAHA ILLALLAH.
This daily dhikr will bring the seeker
into the perfect presence of the One Who is glorified.
The Dhikr by negation and affirmation,
in the manner of the Naqshbandi Sufi Masters, demands that the seeker
close his eyes, close his mouth, clench his teeth, glue his tongue to
the roof of his mouth, and hold his breath. He must recite the dhikr
through the heart, by negation and affirmation, beginning with the word
LA ("No"). He lifts this "No" from under his navel up to his brain. Upon
reaching his brain the word "No" brings out the word ILAHA ("god"),
moves from the brain to the left shoulder, and hits the heart with
ILLALLAH ("except The God"). When that word hits the heart its energy
and heat spreads to all the parts of the body. The seeker who has denied
all that exists in this world with the words LA ILAHA, affirms with the
words ILLALLAH that all that exists has been annihilated in the Divine
The seeker repeats this with every
breath, inhaling and exhaling, always making it come to the heart,
according to the number of times prescribed to him by his shaikh. The
seeker will eventually reach the state where in one breath he can repeat
LA ILAHA ILLALLAH twenty-three times. A perfect shaikh can repeat LA
ILAHA ILLALLAH an infinite number of times in every breath. The meaning
of this practice is that the only goal is ALLAH and that there is no
other goal for us. To look at the Divine Presence as the Only Existence
after all this throws back into the heart of the murid the love of the
and at that time he says, MUHAMMADUN RASULULLAH ("Muhammad is the
Prophet of God") which is the heart of the Divine Presence.
6. Returning ("baz gasht")
This is a state in which the seeker,
who makes Dhikr by negation and affirmation, comes to understand the
phrase, ilahi anta maqsusdi wa ridaka matlubi ("O my God, You are
my Goal and Your Good Pleasure is my Aim.") The recitation of this
phrase will increase in the seeker the awareness of the Oneness of God,
until he reaches the state in which the existence of all creation
vanishes from his eyes. All that he sees, wherever he looks, is the
Absolute One. The Naqshbandi murids recite this sort of dhikr in order
to extract from their hearts the secret of Oneness, and to open
themselves to the Reality of the Unique Divine Presence. The beginner
has no right to leave this dhikr if he doesn't find its power appearing
in his heart. He must keep on reciting it in imitation of his Shaykh,
because the Prophet
said, "Whoever imitates a group of people will belong to them." And
whoever imitates his teacher will some day find this secret opened to
The meaning of the phrase "baz gasht"
is the return to Allah Exalted and Almighty by showing complete
surrender and submission to His Will, and complete humbleness in giving
Him all due praise. That is the reason the Holy Prophet mentioned in his
invocation, ma dhakarnaka haqqa dhikrika ya Madhkur ("We did not
Remember You as You Deserve to be Remembered, O Allah"). The seeker
cannot come to the presence of Allah in his dhikr, and cannot manifest
the Secrets and Attributes of Allah in his dhikr, if he does not make
dhikr with Allah's Support and with Allah's Remembrance of him. As
Bayazid said: "When I reached Him I saw that His remembering of me
preceded my remembrance of Him." The seeker cannot make dhikr by
himself. He must recognise that Allah is the one making Dhikr through
7. Attentiveness ("nigah dasht")
"Nigah" means sight. It means
that the seeker must watch his heart and safeguard it by preventing bad
thoughts from entering. Bad inclinations keep the heart from joining
with the Divine. It is acknowledged in the Naqshbandiyya that for a
seeker to safeguard his heart from bad inclinations for fifteen minutes
is a great achievement. For this he would be considered a real Sufi.
Sufism is the power to safeguard the heart from bad thoughts and protect
it from low inclinations. Whoever accomplishes these two goals will know
his heart, and whoever knows his heart will know his Lord. The Holy
has said, "Whoever knows himself knows His Lord."
One Sufi shaikh said, "Because I
safeguarded my heart for ten nights, my heart has safeguarded me for
Abu Bakr al-Qaittani said, "I was the
guard at the door of my heart for 40 years, and I never opened it for
anyone except Allah, Almighty and Exalted, until my heart did not know
anyone except Allah Almighty and Exalted."
Abul Hassan al-Kharqani said, "It has
been 40 years that Allah has been looking at my heart and has seen no
one except Himself. And there is no room in my heart for other than
8. Recollection ("yada dasht")
It means that the reciter of Dhikr
safeguards his heart with negation and affirmation in every breath
without leaving the Presence of Allah Almighty and Exalted. It requires
the seeker to keep his heart in Allah's Divine Presence continuously.
This allows him to realize and manifest the Light of the Unique Essence
(anwar adh-dhat al-Ahadiyya) of God. He then casts away three of
the four different forms of thoughts: the egoistic thoughts, the evil
thoughts, and the angelic thoughts, keeping and affirming solely the
fourth form of thought, the haqqani or truthful thoughts. This
will lead the seeker to the highest state of perfection by discarding
all his imaginings and embracing only the Reality which is the Oneness
of Allah, Almighty and Exalted.
'Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani had four
khalifs. The first was Shaikh Ahmad as-Siddiq, originally from Bukhara.
The second was Kabir al-Awliya ("the Greatest of Saints"), Shaikh Arif
Awliya al-Kabir (q). Originally from Bukhara, he was a great scholar in
both external and internal Sciences. The third khalif was Shaikh
Sulaiman al-Kirmani (q). The fourth khalif was cArif
ar-Riwakri (q). It is to this fourth khalif that Abdul Khaliq (q) passed
the Secret of the Golden Chain before he died on the 12th of
Rabi'ul-Awwal 575 H.
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was a Knower whose Inner Truth
appeared to him in all its brightness and light. He was a Sun of
Knowledge who illuminated the dark sky of his Age. He was called
the Light in the Garden of Reality and the Light in the Garden
of the Prophet .
Arif (q) was born in the
village of Riwakar six miles from Bukhara and one mile from Ghujdawan.
He stood at the door of his Shaikh, Abdul Khaliq, and served him until
the Shaikh gave him permission for irshad (giving guidance). He
took the Secret of the Order from his Shaikh who witnessed his
attainment to the state of perfection. He filled the countries around
Bukhara with the scent of his blessings. He opened the minds and the
hearts of the people of his time to the secrets of his knowledge.
His students recorded
many of his sayings. The following are some of them:
"Whoever says ten
times in a day, 'Oh Allah Guide the Nation of Muhammad. Oh Allah
Bless the Nation of Muhammad. Oh Allah remove all afflictions from
the Nation of Muhammad,' will be written among the group of saints
known as the
"There are three
kinds of hearts: the heart like a mountain, which nothing can move;
the heart like a palm-tree, its roots firm but its branches in
motion; and the heart like a feather, which the wind blows from
right to left."
Arif ar-Riwakri (q) died
in the same city he was born, Riwakar, and he was buried there.
Khwaja Mahmoud al-Anjir
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was a Master from whose heart
the Water of Knowledge and Wisdom gushed forth. His heart was polished
by the Divine Effulgence, making him one of the best of the Chosen Ones,
purified from all darkness and misery, and translucent as crystal.
He was born in the village of Anjir
Faghna, three miles from Bukhara. In his youth he used to work in
construction. He devoted his life to the guidance of people to Allah's
Presence. He was the first in the line of the Masters of Wisdom (Khwajagan)
to introduce the method of loud dhikr in accordance with the needs of
the time and as required by the conditions of the seekers. When he was
asked why he used the loud dhikr, he replied, "To awaken the sleeper."
The Controversy on Loud Dhikr
One day Khwaja Mahmoud attended a
scholarly gathering and Shaikh Shams al-Halwani said to the Shaikh Hafiz
ad-Din, an authority in external knowledge, to ask Shaikh Mahmad
Faghnawi why he was doing loud dhikr. Shaikh Mahmoud Faghnawi said, "it
is the best dhikr to awaken an outsider from his state of slumber and to
attract the attention of the heedless so that he direct himself towards
Allah following the shaikh who is making dhikr, straighten himself on
the Way, and make his repentance to Allah a pure one, which is the key
to all good and happiness. If your intention is correct you will find
the authority to use the loud dhikr."
Shaikh Hafiz ad-Din asked him to
clarify to him just who is permitted and allowed to practice the loud
dhikr, in order to justify the practice to those who opposed it. He said
"the loud dhikr is for anyone who wishes to reach the state of purifying
his tongue from lying and backbiting, and free his private actions from
committing what is forbidden, and clean his heart from pride and the
love of fame."
One day the Shaikh Ali Ramitani (q),
said that a man saw Khidr
asked him, "Tell me where I can find someone that is keeping the
sharica of the Prophet
the Straight Path, in order that I may follow him." He said, "that one
whom you are seeking is Shaikh Mahmad al-Anjir al-Faghnawi."
It is said that Shaikh Mahmoud walked
on the footsteps of the Prophet Muhammad
station of Knowledge of God (macrifa) and he was also
on the footsteps of Sayiddina Musa
station of Kalimullah, the station of One who Speaks with Allah.
Shaikh Mahmoud radiated his knowledge
from his masjid, which he built in the village of Wabiqni, close to
Bukhara. He passed away in the village of Qilit, near Bukhara, on the
17th of Rabi'ul Awwal, in the year 717 H.
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was a Noble Flag of Islam and a
great scholar who opened the locks to the treasures of the heart and
explained secrets from the Unseen. He received, from the Kingdom of
Knowers, Bounties and Prizes and Honors. He guided the needy to the
station of Spiritual Knowledge. His name flew high in the skies of
Guidance, and there are no words to express his knowledge nor his state.
To us he may be described, like the Mother of Books (the Holy Qur'an),
as "one written in an elevated state."
He was born in the village of Ramitan,
two miles from Bukhara. He lived there, and was avid in learning the
knowledge of the Divine Law (sharica), until he
achieved fame in the Sciences of Traditions (Hadith), Qur'an,
Jurisprudenct (Fiqh), and the Exemplary Path of the Prophet
He was a reference (marjac) for anyone asking for
legal decisions (fatawa).
Then he contacted Shaikh Mahmad al-Anjir
al-Faghnawi for spiritual guidance. In the Shaikh's presence he was
lifted up to the high stations of the Manifestation of Divine Love and
the Divine Presence. He became known and famous under the name Azizan,
a word in Persian used for one of elevated station. Following are some
of his many sayings:
"Allah Almighty and Exalted said
in His Holy Qur'an, "O Believers, repent to Allah with a pure
repentance." This verse brings us good tidings. Since Allah asks for
repentance (tawba), it means He will accept it, because if He
were not going to accept your repentance, He would not tell you to
said, 'Allah looks at the heart of the Believer every night and day
360 times.' This means that the heart has 360 entrances. And every
organ has 360 roots, all of them connected to the heart. So if the
heart, under the influence of Dhikrullah, is led to the
station of Allah's Gaze, this will lead all organs of the body to
the Gaze of Allah. As a result, every organ will be obedient to
Allah and from the light of that obedience every organ will be
connected to the Divine Outpouring. This is what draws the Gaze of
Mercy from Allah to the heart of the Rememberer."
More Controversy on Loud Dhikr
Mawlana Sayfuddin Fidda, a great
scholar in his time, asked him, "Why do you raise your voice in Dhikr?"
Sheikh Ali (q) said:
"O my brother, Muslim scholars
throughout the centuries, from the time of the Tabicin
(the generation following the Companions) up until today, have
permitted the loud dhikr in the last moments of life. At this
time those near the dying encourage him to repeat the testimony
of faith. The Prophet said, laqqina mawtakum shahadatan LA
ILAHA ILLALLAH ("make your dying ones say: There is no god
but Allah"). In the Science of Sufism, the scholars have
emphasized that each moment may be your last. This leads to the
conclusion that you may say LA ILAHA ILLALLAH in a loud voice at
every moment of your life."
He was asked by Shaikh Mawlana
Badruddin al-Midani, who was a great scholar in his time, "Allah has
ordered us in the Qur'an to do excessive dhikr by His saying,
"Remember Allah excessively" [33:41]. Is that dhikr to be by the
tongue or by the heart?" Shaikh cAli Ramitani (q) answered:
"For the beginner it is best
that it be by the tongue, and for the adept it is best that it
be by the heart." He continued, "This is because for the
beginner to remember Allah he must apply a great deal of effort.
Since his heart is distracted and unstable and his efforts are
scattered, it is better for him to do it with the tongue. But
the adept has already polished his heart and is easily affected
by dhikr. All of his organs become Rememberers so that the whole
body of the adept, both externally and internally, remembers
Allah in every moment. The equivalence of this is that one day's
dhikr of the adept is equal to one year's dhikr of a beginner."
"The duty of a guide is first
to know the capability of the seeker. Then he will put on his
tongue the most perfect method of dhikr to raise him to the
"If there had been on earth one
of the followers of Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani at the time of
Hallaj, Hallaj would never have been crucified." This means that
there would have been someone capable of defending him from the
accusations of the ignorant.
Shaikh Fakhruddin an-Nuri, another
famous scholar in his time, asked him, "Allah mentioned in the Holy
Qur'an that on the Day of Promises he asked, Alastu bi Rabbikum, qala
bala [7:172] ("Am I not your Lord? -- They said: Yes!"),
whereas on the Judgement Day He will ask, liman al-mulk ul-yawm
[40:16] ('to whom belongs the Kingdom on this day?') and no one
will answer. Why is it that they answered the question, 'Am I not your
Lord' whereas on the Judgement Day they will not answer?" In His answer,
Sheikh Ali Ramitani (q) demonstrated the incredible depth of
understanding of Qur'an and Holy Hadith possessed by the Naqshbandi
Masters. He said:
"When the first question,
'Am I not your Lord?' was put to humankind, it was the day
Allah had placed the obligations of the Sacred Law on all human
beings. To reply when asked a question is an obligation under
the Law. That is why they answered the question. However on the
Judgement Day, all obligations have come to an end, and at that
time, awareness of the Truth and the spiritual world begins. In
spirituality there is no utterance better than silence, because
spirituality is a flow from and to the heart unrelated to the
tongue. That is why to the second question there is no need to
give an answer. Allah Himself answers His own question, 'To
whom belongs the Kingdom this Day?' by saying, lillah il-Wahid
il-Qahhar, 'It belongs to Allah, the Unique, the
Upon receiving a heavenly order he
moved from Bukhara to Khwarazm. When he reached Khwarazm, he didn't
enter the city, but stayed at its gate and sent his messenger to the
king to tell him, "A poor weaver has come to enter your kingdom and to
stay in it. Do you give permission or not? If you give permission he
will enter. If not he will go back." He asked the messenger to obtain a
written letter, signed by the king, granting his permission. When he
received that letter the Shaykh moved inside the city and began to
spread the Naqshbandi Sufi Way. Every day he went to the town center,
speaking with the people, asking them to come to his association and
paying their wages for that day. He made the entire city his followers,
pious worshippers and dedicated keepers of remembrance. He became very
famous in the city. People used to visit him from all around. His good
reputation made the king and his ministers afraid of his influence on
the people. They tried to remove him from the city. Having foreseen this
event, he sent the letter back to the king. At that the king came to the
shaikh and apologized, asking for his forgiveness. He became one of his
Shaykh Ali died on Monday, 18th of Dhul
Qa'idah in the year 715 H / 1315 CE or 721 H/1321 CE, at the age of 130
Muhammad Baba as-Samasi
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
Muhammad Baba as-Samasi (q), the distinguished student of al-Azizan, was
the Scholar of the Saints and the Saint of the Scholars. He was unique
in the two knowledges, the inner and the outer. His blessings permeated
every nation in his time. From his desire to learn, he caused every
unseen knowledge and secret to appear. He was the pinnacle of the Suns
of External and Internal Knowledge of the Eighth Hijra Century. One of
his miraculous signs was his Ascension from the Dome of the Rock, which
was his heart, to the station of the Knower of the Knowers. From
everywhere those versed in spiritual wisdom made the pilgrimage to his
Garden of Knowledge and circumambulated the Ka'aba of his Guidance.
He was born in Sammas, a village in the
suburbs of Ramitan, three miles from Bukhara. He progressed in his
journey by reading from the Sciences of the Qur'an, memorizing the
Qur'an and the Prophetic Tradition (hadith), and becoming a great
scholar in Jurisprudence. Then he began to study the Speculative
Theology, Logic, and Philosophy ('ilm al-Kalam), as well as
History, until he was a walking encyclopedia of every kind of art and
science. He followed Shaikh Ali Ramitani al-'Azizan (q) and he was
constantly engaged in struggling against his self. He was put into
seclusion on a daily basis, until he reached such a state of purity that
his shaikh was permitted to transmit to his heart from the Unseen
Heavenly Knowledge. He became very famous for his miraculous powers and
his high state of sainthood. Shaikh 'Ali Ramitani (q) chose him before
his death as his successor and ordered all his students to follow him.
He used to say, as he passed the
village of Qasr al-cArifan, "I am smelling from this place
the scent of a Spiritual Knower who is going to appear and after whose
name this entire Order will be known." One day he passed the village and
said, "I am smelling the scent so strongly that it is as if the Knower
has now been born." Three days passed, and the grandfather of a child
came to Shaikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi saying, "This is my grandson." He
said to his followers, "This baby is the knower that I was telling you
about. I am seeing in his future that he is to be a guide of all
humanity. His secrets are going to reach every sincere and pious person.
The heavenly knowledge that Allah is going to shower on him will reach
every house in Central Asia. Allah's name is going to be engraved (Naqsh)
on his heart. And the Order will take its name from this engraving."
From His Sayings
"The seeker must always stand
on his keeping Allah's Divine Orders, and he must be constant in
the state of purity. He must first have a pure heart that never
looks towards anything but Allah Almighty and Exalted. Then he
must keep pure that inner self, which is never revealed to
anyone. That is perceiving the true vision. The purity of the
chest (sadr), consists of hope and contentment with His
Will. Then purity of the spirit, which consists of modesty and
reverence. Then purity of the stomach, which depends on only
eating permitted food, and abstinence. This is followed by
purity of the body, which is to leave desire. This is followed
by purity of the hands, which consists of piety and endeavor.
Then comes purity from sins, which is regret and heartbreak for
past wrongdoing. After this is purity of the tongue, which
consists of dhikr and asking forgiveness. Then he must purify
himself from neglect and slackness, by developing fear of the
"We must always be asking
forgiveness, being careful in all our affairs, following the
footsteps of the good and pious, following their internal
teachings, and safeguarding the heart from all whispers."
"Be guided by the teachings of
your shaikhs, because they are more direct to cure you than
"You must keep in the
association of a saint. In that association you must keep your
heart from gossiping and you must not speak in their presence in
a loud voice, nor should you be busy in their company with
prayers and voluntary worship. Keep their company in everything.
Don't talk when they are speaking. Listen to what they say.
Don't look in their homes at what they have, especially in their
rooms and their kitchens. Never look towards another shaikh but
keep the belief that your shaikh will make you arrive. And don't
ever connect your heart to another shaikh, as you might be
harmed by that. leave behind whatever you have been raised on in
"In keeping your shaikh you
must not keep in you heart anything but Allah and His Name."
"One time I went to see my
shaikh, Shaikh cAli ar-Ramitani. When I entered his
presence, he said to me, 'O my son, I am seeing in your heart
the desire for an Ascension.' As soon as he said that he placed
me in the state of vision, where I saw myself walking day and
night, from my country to reach the Mosque of the Dome, Masjid
al-Aqsa. When I reached Masjid al-Aqsa, I entered the mosque and
I saw a man there, clothed all in green. He said to me 'Welcome,
we have been waiting for you for a long time.' I said, 'O my
shaikh, I left my country on such and such date. What is today's
date?' He answered, 'Today is the 27th of Rajab.' I realized I
had taken three months to reach the mosque, and to my surprise I
had arrived on the same night as the night of the Prophet's
"He told me, 'Your shaikh,
Sayyid 'Ali ar-Ramitani has been waiting for you here for a long
time.' I went inside, and my shaikh was ready to lead the
prayer. He lead the Night prayer. After completing the prayer,
he looked at me and said, 'O my son, I have been ordered by the
to accompany you from the Mosque of the Dome to the Sidratul
Muntaha, the same place to which the Prophet
ascended.' When he finished speaking the green man brought two
creatures the like of which I had never seen before. We mounted
these creatures and we were lifted up. Wherever we were lifted
up, we were acquiring knowledge of those stations of what was
between Earth and Heavens.
"It is impossible to describe
what we saw and learned in that ascension, because words cannot
express what relates to the heart, and it is not conveyable
except by taste and experience. We continued until we reached
the State of the Reality of the Prophet (al-haqiqat al-Muhammadiyya),
which is in the Divine Presence. As soon as we entered this
state, my shaikh vanished and I vanished. We were seeing that
there is nothing in existence in this universe except the
And we were perceiving that there is nothing beyond that except
Allah Almighty and Exalted.
"Then I heard the Prophet's
voice saying to me, 'Ya Muhammad Baba as-Samasi, O my son, that
path you are on is one of the most Distinguished ones, and those
who have been chosen to be stars and beacons for human beings
will be accepted in that path. Return, and I am supporting you
with all my power, as Allah is supporting me with His Power. And
keep in the service of your shaikh." As the voice of the Prophet
came to an end, I found myself standing in the presence of my
shaikh. That is a great blessing, to be in the company of such
powerful shaikhs, who can take you to the Divine Presence."
Shaikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi (q) died
in Samas on the 10th of Jumada al-Akhir, in the year 755 H.
as-Sayyid Amir Kulal ibn as-Sayyid Hamza
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
Sayyid Amir Kulal
is known as the Rose of the Characteristics and Attributes of the
Prophet, the Furthest Lote Tree of Desire for the Ultimate Stations, the
Owner of the Throne of Guidance, the Attractor of Heavenly Blessings,
and the Teacher with his holy breath of the Secrets of the Divine. He is
a mujaddid or Renewer of the sharica (Law), a
Master of the tariqa (Way), a builder of haqiqa
(Reality), and a guide for khaliqa (Creation). He was
distinguished for mastery among the saints of his time, who applied the
following saying to him: "The Saints of Mastery are the Masters of all
He was born in the village of Sukhar, two miles
from Bukhara. His family were sayyid, descendants of the Holy
His mother said, "When I was pregnant with him, whenever my hand went
towards doubtful food, I would be unable to convey it to my mouth. This
happened to me many times. I knew that I had someone special in my womb.
I was careful and chose my food from the best and assuredly halal
In his childhood he was a wrestler. He used to
practice all of its arts, until he became one of the most famous
wrestlers in his time. All the wrestlers would gather around him to
learn from him. One day, a man watching him wrestle had the following
thought come to his heart: "How is it that a person who is the
Descendant of the Prophet
who is deeply knowledgeable in sharica and tariqat,
is practicing this sport?" He immediately fell into a deep sleep and
dreamt that it was the Judgement Day. He felt that he was in great
difficulty and that he was drowning. Then the shaikh Sayyid Amir al-Kulal
appeared to him and rescued him from the water. He woke up and Sayyid
Amir al-Kulal (q) looked at him and said, "Did you witness my power in
wrestling and my power in intercession?"
One time his shaikh-to-be, Muhammad Baba as-Samasi
(q), was passing by his wrestling arena, accompanied by his followers.
He stopped and stood there. An evil whisper came to the heart of one of
his followers saying, "How is it that the shaikh is standing here in
this wrestling arena?" The shaikh looked at his follower immediately and
said, "I am standing here for the sake of one person. He is going to be
a great Knower. Everyone will come to him for guidance and through him
people will reach the highest states of Divine Love and the Divine
Presence. My intention is to bring this person under my wing." At that
moment Amir Kulal (q) gazed at him, was attracted and abandoned the
sport of wrestling. He followed Shaikh Muhammad Baba As-Samasi to his
house. Shaikh Samasi taught him the dhikr and the principles of this
most distinguished tariqat and told him, "You are now my son."
Shaikh Kulal followed Shaikh Samasi for 20
years, spending all his time in dhikr, seclusion, worship, and
self-denial. No one saw him in these 20 years except in the company of
his shaikh. He would come to see his shaikh in Samas every Monday and
Thursday, although the distance was five miles and the journey
difficult, until he reached a state of unveiling (mukashafa). At
that time his fame began to spread everywhere until he left this world.
He had four children, as-Sayyid al-Amir
Burhanuddin, as-Sayyid al-Amir Hamza, as-Sayyid al-Amir Shah, and
as-Sayyid al-Amir 'Umar. He also had four khalifs, but he passed his
secrets to only one of them, the Master of Masters, the Knower of
Knowers, the Greatest of Arch-Intercessors (al-Ghawth al-Aczam),
the Sultan of the Saints, Shaikh Muhammad Baha'uddin Shah Naqshband (q).
Shaikh Sayyid Amir Kulal died in the same
village in which he was born, Sukhar, the 8th of Jumada al-Awwal, 772 H.
Muhammad Baha'uddin Shah Naqshband
May Allah Bless His Secret and Sanctify His Soul
He is an Ocean of Knowledge that has no shore. Its waves were woven with
the pearls of Heavenly Knowledge. He cleansed humanity with his Ocean of
Innocence and Piety. He quenched the thirst of souls with the water of
his spiritual Support. The whole world, including its oceans and
continents, were within his grasp. He is a star decorated with the crown
of Guidance. He sanctified all human souls without exception with his
holy breath. He adorned even the remotest corner with the secrets of
light penetrated every dark lair of ignorance. His outstanding proofs
cast away the least whisper of doubt from the hearts of humanity. His
powerful miracles brought life to hearts after their deaths and provided
souls with their provision for the spiritual realm. He was nursed in the
Station of the Arch-Intercessor when he was a child in the cradle. He
sipped the nectar of Unseen Knowledge from the cup of Reality. If
not the last of the Prophets
would have been a prophet. All Praise to Allah for sending such a
Reviver of Religion (mujaddid). He uplifted the hearts of
humanity causing them to soar in the sky of spirituality. He made kings
to stand at his door. He spread his guidance from North to South and
from East to West. He left no one without heavenly support--even the
wild animals in jungles. He is the greatest Ghawth,
Arch-intercessor, the Sultan of Saints, the Necklace of all the
spiritual Pearls that were bestowed on this world by the Divine
Presence. By the light of his guidance Allah caused the good to be the
best and transformed evil into goodness.
He is the Master of this Tariqat and
the Shaikh of the Golden Chain and the Best of those who carried this
lineage from the Khwajagan.
He was born in the month of Muharram,
in 717 H./1317 CE, in the village of Qasr al-'Arifan near Bukhara. Allah
granted him miraculous powers in his childhood. He had been taught about
the secret of this tariqat by his first teacher, Sayyid Muhammad Baba
As-Samasi (q). Then he was given the secret and the mastery of the Order
by his shaikh, Sayyid Amir al-Kulal (q). He was also Uwaysi in
his connection to the Prophet, as he was raised in the spiritual
presence of Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani (q), who preceded him by 200
The Beginning of His Guidance and
the Guidance of His Beginning
Shah Naqshband (q) was eighteen years
of age when he was sent by his grandfather to the village of Samas to
serve the Shaikh of the Tariqat, Muhamad Baba as-Samasi (q), who had
asked for him. From the beginning of his companionship with the Shaikh,
he perceived within himself countless blessings and the urge for great
sincerity and devotion. Of his youth he relates:
"I would arise early, three
hours before Fajr prayer, take ablution, and after making Sunnah
prayers, I would go into prostration, supplicating God with the
following prayer: "O my Lord, give me the power to carry the
difficulties and the pain of Your Love." Then I would pray Fajr
with the Shaikh. On his way out one day he looked at me and
said, as if he had been with me when I made that supplication,
"O my son, you have to change the method of your supplication.
Instead say, 'O Allah, grant your pleasure to this weak
servant.' God doesn't like His servants to be in difficulties.
Although God in His Wisdom might give some difficulties to His
servants to test them, the servant must not ask to be in
difficulties. This would not be respectful to your Lord.'
"When Shaikh Muhammad Baba
as-Samasi died, my grandfather took me to Bukhara and I married
there. I lived in Qasr al-'Arifan, which was God's special care
to me because I was near to Sayyid Amir Kulal. I stayed in his
service, and he told me that Shaikh Muhammad Baba as-Samasi had
told him a long time before that, 'I will not be happy with you
if you will not take good care of him.' One day, I was sitting
with a friend in seclusion, and the Heavens opened and a grand
vision came to me and I heard a voice saying, 'Is it not enough
for you to leave everyone and to come to Our Presence Alone?'
This voice reduced me to a state of trembling, causing me to run
away from that house. I ran to a river where I threw myself. I
washed my clothes and prayed two rakats in a way that I had
never prayed before, feeling as if I was praying in the Divine
Presence. Everything was opened to my heart in a state of
Unveiling (kashf). The entire universe disappeared and I
was not aware of anything other than praying in His Presence.
"I had been asked, in the
beginning of my state of Attraction, 'Why are you going to enter
on this Path?' I answered, 'In order that whatever I say and
whatever I want will happen.' I was answered, 'That will not be.
Whatever We say and whatever We want is what will happen.' And I
said, 'I cannot do that. I must be permitted to say and to do
whatever I like, or I don't want this Way.' Then I received the
answer, 'No, it is whatever We want to be said and whatever We
want to be done that must be said and done.' And I said again,
'Whatever I say and whatever I do is what must be.' Then I was
left alone for fifteen days, until I was overwhelmed with a
tremendous depression. Then I heard a voice, 'O Baha'uddin,
whatever you want, We will grant.' I was overjoyed. I said, 'I
want to be given a Path (tariqat) that will lead anyone
who travels on it straight to the Divine Presence.' And I
experienced a great vision and heard a voice saying, 'You are
granted what you have asked.'"
His Progress and Struggle on the
"One time I was in a state of
Attraction and in a state of absent-mindedness, moving from here
to there, not aware of what I was doing. My feet were torn and
bleeding from thorns when darkness fell. I felt myself attracted
to the house of my shaikh, Sayyid Amir Kulal. It was a pitch
black night with no moon nor stars showing. The air was very
cold and I had nothing on but an old leather cloak. When I
arrived at his house, I found him sitting with his friends. When
he saw me he told his followers, 'Take him out, I don't want him
in my house.' They put me out and I felt that my ego was trying
to overcome me and that it was taking over my heart and my
feelings, trying to poison my trust in my shaikh. At that point
Allah's Divine Care and His Mercy were my only support in
carrying this humiliation in the Cause of Allah and the Cause of
my shaikh. I said to my ego, 'I am not allowing you to poison my
trust in my shaikh.' I felt so tired and so depressed that I put
the state of humbleness at the door of pride, placed my head on
the threshold of the door of my teacher, and took an oath that I
would not remove it until he accepted me again. The snow was
beginning to fall and the frigid air was penetrating my bones,
causing me to tremble in the dark night. There was not even the
warmth of the moon to comfort me. I remained in that state until
I froze. But the love that was inside my heart, the love for the
Divine and the love for the door of the Divine, my shaikh, kept
me warm. Dawn came and my shaikh stepped out of his door without
seeing me physically. He put his foot on my head, which was
still on his threshold. On sensing my head, he immediately
withdrew his foot, took me inside his house and said to me, 'O
my son you have been dressed with the dress of Happiness. You
have been dressed with the dress of Divine Love. You have been
dressed with a dress that neither myself nor my shaikh has been
dressed with. Allah is happy with you. The Prophet
is happy with you. All the shaikhs of the Golden Chain are happy
with you...' Then with great care and delicacy he pulled the
thorns from my feet and washed my wounds. At the same time he
poured into my heart such knowledge that I never experienced
before. This opened for me a vision in which I saw myself
entering into the secret of MUHAMMADUN RASULULLAH. I saw myself
entering into the secret of the verse which is the Haqiqa
Muhammadiyya (Reality of Muhammad). This led me to enter the
secret of LA ILAHA ILLALLAH which is the secret of
wahdaniyyah (Uniqueness of God). This then led me to enter
the secrets of Allah's Names and Attributes which are expressed
by the secret of ahadiyya (Oneness of God). Those states
cannot be put into words, but can only known through taste which
is experienced in the heart."
"In the beginning of my travel
on the Way, I used to wander at night from one place to another
in the suburbs of Bukhara. By myself in the darkness of the
night, especially in the wintertime, I visited the cemeteries to
take a lesson from the dead. One night I was led to visit the
grave of Shaikh Ahmad al-Ajgharawa and to read al-Fatiha for
him. When I arrived, I found two men, whom I had never met
before, waiting for me with a horse. They put me on the horse
and they tied two swords on my belt. They directed the horse to
the grave of Shaikh Mazdakhin. When we arrived, we all
dismounted and entered the tomb and mosque of the shaikh. I sat
facing the Qiblah, meditating and connecting my heart to the
heart of that shaikh. During this meditation a vision was opened
to me and I saw the wall facing Qiblah come tumbling down. A
huge throne appeared. A gigantic man, whom no words can
describe, was sitting on that throne. I felt that I knew him.
Wherever I turned my face in this universe I saw that man.
Around him was a large crowd in which were my shaikhs, Shaikh
Muhammad Baba as-Samasi and Sayyid Amir Kulal. Then I felt
afraid of the gigantic man while at the same time I felt love
for him. I had fear of his exalted presence and love for his
beauty and attraction. I said to myself, 'Who is that great
man?' I heard a voice among the people in the crowd saying,
'This great man who nurtured you on your spiritual path is your
shaikh. He was looking at your soul when it was still an atom in
the Divine Presence. You have been under his training. He is
Shaikh Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani (q) and the crowd you are
seeing are the khalifs who carry his great secret, the secret of
the Golden Chain.' Then the shaikh began to point to each shaikh
and say, 'This is Shaikh Ahmad; this is Kabir al-Awliya; this is
'Arif Riwakri; this is shaikh Ali Ramitani; this is your shaikh,
Muhammad Baba as-Samasi, who in his life gave you his cloak. Do
you know him?' I said, 'Yes.'
"Then he said to me, 'That
cloak which he gave you such a long time ago is still in your
house, and with its blessing Allah has removed from your life
many afflictions.' Then another voice came and said, 'The Shaikh
who is on the Throne is going to teach you something you need
while traveling on this way.' I asked if they would allow me to
shake hands with him. They allowed this and took the veil away
and I took his hand. Then he began to tell me about sulook
(wayfaring), its beginning, middle and end. He said, 'You have
to adjust the wick of your self in order that the light of the
unseen can be strengthened in you and its secrets can be seen.
You have to show constancy and you have to be firm in the Divine
Law (sharica) of the Prophet
in all your states. You have to "order the right and forbid
the wrong" [3:110, 114] and keep to the highest standard of
the Sharica, and leave the dispensations of ease, and
throw away innovation in all its forms, and make your Qiblah the
Narrations (Hadith). You have to investigate his life (sirah)
and the sira of His Companions, and to urge people to follow and
to read the Qur'an both day and night, and to do the prayers
with all their superogatory worship (nawafil). Do not
ignore even the smallest thing from what the Prophet
has shown us of deeds and good works.'
"As soon as Abdul Khaliq
finished, his khalif told me, 'In order to be assured of the
certainty of this vision, he is sending you a sign. Tomorrow go
and visit Mawlana Shamsuddin al-Ambikuti, who will be judging
between two people. Tell him that the Turk is right and the
Saqqa is wrong. Say to him, 'You are trying to help the Saqqa,
but you are mistaken. Correct yourself and help the Turk.' If
the Saqqa denies what you say, and the judge continues in
helping the Saqqa, tell him, 'I have two proofs. The first
requires you to tell the Saqqa, 'O Saqqa, you are thirsty.' He
will know what that thirst means. As for the second proof, you
must tell the Saqqa, 'You have slept in adultery with a woman
and she became pregnant, and you have had the baby she was
carrying aborted, and you buried the baby under the grapevines.'
On your way to Mawlana Shamsuddin, take with you three dry
raisins and pass by your shaikh, Sayyid Amir al-Kulal. On your
way to him you will find a shaikh who will give you a loaf of
bread. Take the bread and don't speak with him. Continue until
you meet a caravan. A wrestler will approach you. Advise and
reproach him. He is going to repent and become one of your
followers. Wear your qalansuwa (hat) and take the cloak
of 'Azizan to Sayyid Amir Kulal.'
"After that they moved me and
the vision ended. I came back to myself. The next day I went to
my house and I asked my family about the cloak that had been
mentioned in the vision. They brought it to me and told me, 'It
has been sitting there for a long time.' When I saw the cloak a
state of internal crying overcame me. I took the cloak and went
to the village of Ambikata, in the suburbs of Bukhara, to the
mosque of Mawlana Shamsuddin. I prayed Fajr with him and then I
told him about the sign which astonished him. As-Saqqa was
present and he denied that the Turk was right. Then I told him
about the proofs. He accepted the first and he denied the
second. Then I asked the people in the masjid to go to the
grapevine which was near the masjid. They did and found the
child who was buried there. The Saqqa came crying and apologized
for what he had done, but it was over. Mawlana Shamsuddin and
the others in the mosque were in a great state of astonishment.
"I prepared to travel the next
day to the city of Naskh and had with me the three dry grapes.
Mawlana Shamsuddin tried to detain me by telling me, 'I am
seeing in you the pain of longing for us and the burning desire
to reach the Divine. Your healing is in Our Hands.' I answered
him, 'O my shaikh, I am the son of someone else and I am his
follower. Even if you offer to nurse me from the breast of the
highest station, I cannot take it, except from the one to whom I
gave my life and from whom I took my initiation.' Then he kept
quiet and permitted me to travel. I moved as I had been
instructed until I met the shaikh and he gave me a loaf of
bread. I didn't speak with him. I took the loaf from him, as I
had been ordered. Then I met a caravan. They asked me where I
was coming from. I said, 'Ambikata.' They asked me when I had
left. I said, 'At sunrise.' They were surprised and said, 'That
village is miles away and crossing that distance would take you
a long time. We left that village last night and you left at
sunrise and yet you have reached us.' I continued on until I met
a horseman. He asked me 'Who are you? I am afraid of you!' I
told him, 'I am the one on whose hand will be your repentance.'
He dismounted his horse, showing complete humbleness to me and
repented and threw away all the wine that he was carrying. He
accompanied me to my Shaikh, Sayyid Amir Kulal. When I saw him I
gave him the cloak.
"He kept silent for some time
and then he said, 'This is the cloak of 'Azizan. I was informed
last night that you would be bringing it to me, and I have been
ordered to keep it in ten different layers of covering.' Then he
ordered me to enter his private room. He taught me and placed in
my heart the silent dhikr. He ordered me to keep that dhikr day
and night. As I had been ordered in the vision of Shaikh 'Abdul
Khaliq al-Ghujdawani to keep to the difficult way, I kept that
silent dhikr which is the highest form of dhikr. In addition, I
used to attend the associations of the external scholars to
learn the Sciences of Divine Law (sharica) and
the Traditions of the Prophet
(Hadith), and to learn about the character of the Prophet
and his Sahaba. I did as the vision told me, and this resulted
in a big change in my life. All that Shaikh Abdul Khaliq
al-Ghujdawani taught me in that vision bore its blessed fruits
in my life. His spirit was always accompanying me and teaching
On Loud and Silent Dhikr
It is mentioned in the book
al-Bahjat as-Saniyya that from the time of Mahmoud al-Faghnawi to
the time of Sayyid Amir al-Kulal they kept the way of loud dhikr when in
association and silent dhikr when alone. However, when Shah Bahaudin
Naqshband received his secret, he kept only the silent dhikr. Even in
the associations of Sayid Amir Kulal, when they began to do the loud
dhkir, he used to leave and go to his room to do silent dhikr. This was
making the murids somewhat upset: although his shaikh was doing the loud
dhikr, he was doing the silent dhikr. Yet he stood in the service of his
shaikh all his life.
One day, as Shah Baha'uddan and all the
followers of Sayyid Amir Kulal were taking a rest from building a new
mosque, Sayyid Amir Kulal said, "Whoever was keeping bad thoughts about
my son Baha'uddan was wrong. Allah has given him a secret that no one
was given before. Even I was unable to know it." And he told him, "O my
son, I have fulfilled the will and advice of Shaikh Muhammad Baba
as-Samasi when he ordered me to raise you and nurse you in my way of
training until you surpassed me. This I have done, and you have capacity
to continue higher and higher. So, my dear son, I am now giving you
complete permission to go wherever you like and to obtain knowledge from
whomever you find."
"One time I followed Mawlana
'Arif ad-Dik Karrani for seven years. Then I followed Mawlana
Kuthum Shaikh for many years. One night I slept in the presence
of my shaikh and I saw the Shaikh al-Hakim 'Attar, who was one
of the famous shaikhs of the Turks, telling something to a
dervish named Khalil Ghirani. When I awoke the picture of that
dervish stayed in my mind. I had a pious grandmother to whom I
mentioned the dream. She told me, 'O my son, you are also going
to follow many Turkish shaikhs.' So I looked in my travels for
Turkish shaikhs and I never forgot the picture of that one
dervish. Then one day in my own country of Bukhara, I saw a
dervish, and I recognized him as the one in my dream. I asked
him his name and he told me, 'I am Kahlil Ghirani.' I had to
leave him, but I felt terrible to do so. At Maghrib time someone
knocked at my door. I answered and a stranger told me, 'Darwish
Khalil Ghirani is waiting for you.' I was so surprised. How had
that person found me? I took a gift and went with him. When I
reached his presence I began to tell him the dream. He said, 'No
need to tell me that dream, I know it already.' This moved my
heart to be more attached to him. In his company new unseen
knowledge was opened to my heart. He was always looking after
me, praising me, and lifting me up. The people of Transoxiana
put him as a king over them. I continued to keep his company,
even in his time of Sultanate, and my heart grew in love for him
more and more and his heart lifted me ever higher in knowledge.
He taught me how to be in the service of the shaikh. I stayed in
his company six years. In his presence and in my seclusion I
kept my connection with him."
"In the beginning of my Travel
on this Way, I met a lover of Allah and he told me, 'it seems as
if you are from Us.' I told him, 'I hope you are from Us and I
hope to be a friend to you.' One time he asked me, 'how do you
treat your self?' I said to him, 'If I find something I thank
Allah and if not I am patient.' He smiled and said, 'This is
easy. The way for you is to burden your ego and to test it. If
it loses food for one week, you must be able to keep it from
disobeying you.' I was very happy with his answer and I asked
his support. He ordered me to help the needy and to serve the
weak and to motivate the heart of the brokenhearted. He rdered
me to keep humbleness and humility and tolerance. I kept his
orders and I spent many days of my life in that manner. Then he
ordered me to take care of animals, to cure their sicknesses, to
clean their wounds, and to assist them in finding their
provision. I kept on that way until I reached the state that if
I saw an animal in the street, I would stop and make way for
"Then he ordered me to look
after the dogs of this Association with Truthfulness and
Humility, and to ask them for support. He told me, 'Because of
your service to one of them you will reach great happiness.' I
took that order in the hope that I would find one dog and
through service to him I would find that happiness. One day I
was in the association of one of them and I felt a great state
of happiness overcome me. I began crying in front of him until
he fell on his back and raised his forepaws to the skies. I
heard a very sad voice emanating from him and so I raised my
hands in supplication and began to say 'amin' in support of him
until he became silent. What then opened for me was a vision
which brought me to a state in which I felt that I was part of
every human being and part of every creation on this earth."
After Wearing the Cloak
"One day I was in my garden in
Qasr al-Arifan (where his mosque and tomb are located), wearing
the cloak of Azizan and around me were my followers. I was
suddenly overwhelmed by the Heavenly Attractions and Blessings,
and I felt I was being dressed and adorned with His Attributes.
I trembled in a way that I had never experienced before, and I
couldn't remain standing. I stood facing the Qiblah and I
entered into a great vision in which I saw the True
Annihilation. I found myself completely annihilated and I didn't
see any existence except my Lord's. Then I saw myself coming out
from His Divine Presence reflected through the Mirror of
MUHAMMADUN RASULULLAH, in the image of a star in an ocean of
Light without beginning or end. My external life ended and I saw
only the meaning of LA ILAHA ILLALLAH MUHAMMADUN RASULULLAH.
This led me to the meaning of the essence of the name 'Allah,'
which led me to the Absolute Unseen, which is the essence of the
Name huwa ("He"). When I entered that ocean my heart
stopped pumping and all my life ended, putting me in a state of
death. My soul left my body and all those around thought I had
died and were crying. Then after six hours I was ordered to
return to my body. I perceived my soul slowly re-entering my
body and the vision ended."
"To deny your existence and to
neglect and disregard your ego is the currency of this Order. In
this state I entered into every level of existence, which made
me a part of all creations and which developed in me a certainty
that everyone is better than me. I saw that everyone provides a
benefit and that only I give no benefit. One day a surprising
state came upon me. I heard the Divine Voice saying, 'Ask
whatever you like from Us.' So I said, with humility, 'O Allah,
grant me one drop of Your Oceans of Mercy and Blessings.' The
answer came, 'You are asking from Our Great Generosity for only
one drop?' This was like a tremendous slap on my face and the
sting of it lasted on my cheek for days. Then one day I said, 'O
Allah grant me from Your Oceans of Mercy and Blessings the Power
to carry it.' At that moment a vision was opened to me wherein I
was seated on a throne and that throne was over an ocean of
mercy. And a voice said to me, 'This ocean of mercy is for you.
Give it to My servants.'
"I was receiving secrets from
every side, especially from Uwais al-Qarani, who greatly
influenced me to depart from all worldly matters and to attach
myself exclusively to spiritual matters. I did this by firmly
keeping the sharaca and the orders of the
until I began spreading the Unseen Knowledge and the Granted
Secrets from the Unique Oneness that no one before had ever
The Miracles of His Sayings and
the Sayings of His Miracles
On the Differences Among Imams
In an assembly of great scholars in
Baghdad he was asked about the differences in the sayings of the four
khalifs of the Holy Prophet
"One time as-Siddiq
said, 'I never saw anything except that Allah was before it,'
and Umar al-Faruq
said, 'I never saw anything except that Allah was behind it.'
said, 'I never saw anything except that Allah was next to it,'
said, 'I never saw anything except that Allah was within it.'"
He commented that, "The differences in these sayings was based
on the differences in the circumstances at the times they were
spoken and not on differences in belief or understanding."
On Traveling in the Path
"What is behind the meaning of
narration, 'Part of faith is to remove what is harmful from the
Way'? What he meant by 'the harmful' is the ego, and what he
meant by 'the Way' is the Way of God, as He said to Bayazid
al-Bistami, 'leave your ego and come to Us.'
He was asked one time, "What is meant
by Traveling the Path?" He said, "The details in spiritual knowledge."
They asked him, "What are the 'details in spiritual knowledge?' He said,
"The one who knows and accepts what he knows will be raised from the
state of evidence and proof to the state of vision."
"Whoever asks to be in the Way
of God has asked for the way of affliction. It was narrated by
'Whoever loves me I will burden him.' One person came to the
and said, 'O Prophet I love you,' and the Prophet
said, 'Then prepare yourself to be poor.' Another time a person
came to the Prophet
and said, 'O Prophet I love God,' and the Prophet said, 'Then
prepare yourself for affliction.'"
He recited a verse:
"Everyone desires the good,
But no one has attained the Ascension,
Except by loving
The One who created the good."
He said, "Everyone who likes himself,
must deny himself, and whoever wants other than himself, wants in
reality only himself."
On Spiritual Training
"There are three ways that
knowers reach their knowledge:
1. Muraqaba - Contemplation
2. Mushahada - Vision
3. Muhasaba - Reckoning
In the state of Contemplation
the seeker forgets the created and remembers only the Creator.
In the State of Vision
inspirations from the Unseen come to the heart of the seeker
accompanied by two states: contraction and expansion. In the
condition of contraction, the vision is of Majesty, and in the
state of expansion the vision is of Beauty.
In the state of Reckoning the
seeker evaluates every hour that has passed: was he in complete
Presence with God or in complete presence with the world?
"The seeker in this way must be
busy in rejecting evil whisperings and the ego's insinuations.
He might reject them before they reach him; or he might reject
them after they reach him but before they control him. Another
seeker, however, might not reject them until after they reach
him and control him. He cannot get any fruit, because at that
time it is impossible to take the whisperings out of the heart."
On Spiritual Stations
He said one time,
"How do the People of God look
at the hidden actions and the whispers of the heart?" He said,
"By the light of the vision that Allah granted them, as
mentioned in the Holy Hadith, 'Beware of the vision of the
Believer, because he looks with the light of God.'"
He was asked about showing miraculous
powers. He said, "What more miraculous powers do you want than that we
are still walking this earth with all these sins upon us and around us."
He was asked, "Who is the reciter and
who is the Sufi in the saying of Junayd, 'Disconnect yourself from the
reciters of books, and accompany the Sufis?'" He said, "The reciter is
the one busy with the words and names, and the Sufi is the one who is
busy with the essence of the names."
He warned, "If a murid, a shaikh or
anyone speaks about a state that he has not attained, Allah will forbid
him to reach that state."
He said, "The mirror of every shaikh
has two directions. But our mirror has six directions."
"What is meant by the Holy
Hadith, 'I am with the one who remembers Me,' is a clear
evidence and a proof supporting the people of the heart who
remember Him always. And the other saying of the Prophet
speaking on behalf of God, as-sawmu li ('the fast is for
Me') is an affirmation that the true fast is to fast from all
that is other than God."
On Spiritual Poverty
He was asked, "Why are they called
al-fuqara' (the poor)?" He said,
"Because they are poor, but
they don't need to supplicate. Just as Prophet the Ibrahim
when he was thrown into the fire and Jibril came and asked him
'Do you need any help?,' replied, 'I have no need to ask, He is
well aware of my state.'"
He said, "Poverty is a sign of
annihilation and the erasure of the attributes of existence."
He said one time,
"Who is the poor one?" No one
answered him. He said, "The poor one is the one whose inside is
always in struggle and whose external is always at peace."
On Proper Manners with One's Sheikh
"It is necessary for the
follower, if he is confused about something his shaikh has said
or done and is unable to understand his reasons, to be patient
and carry it, and not to become suspicious. If he is a beginner,
he might ask; but if he is a murid, he has no reason to ask and
should remain patient with what he doesn't yet understand."
He said, "It is impossible to reach the
love of the people of God until you come out of yourself."
"In Our Way there are three
categories of conduct (adab):
1. Good conduct with Allah
Almighty and Exalted, requires that the murid be externally and
internally perfect in his worship, keeping away from all that is
forbidden and keeping all that has been ordered and leaving all
that is other than God.
2. Good conduct with the
requires the murid to fly in the state of in kuntum tuhibbun
Allah fa-t-tabicunee ('If you want to love
Allah then follow me') [3:31]. He has to follow all the
states of the Prophet. He must know that the Prophet is the
bridge between God and His creation and that everything in this
universe is under his high orders.
3. Good conduct with shaikhs is
a requirement for every seeker. The shaikhs are the causes and
the means for following in the footsteps of the Prophet
It is a duty for the seeker, in their presence or their absence,
to keep the orders of the shaikh."
Shah Naqshband said, "One time one of
my followers greeted me. I didn't respond to him, though it is a
requirement of the Sunnah to respond if someone greets you. This made my
follower upset. I sent someone after him to apologize, saying to him,
'At that time, when you greeted me, my mind, my heart, my spirit, my
body, my soul were completely lost in the Divine Presence, listening to
what Allah was saying to me. This made me so engrossed in the Speech of
God that I was unable to respond to anyone."
"To correct the intentions is
very important, because intentions are from the Unseen World,
not from the Material World." "For that reason," he said, "Ibn
Sireen (author of a book on the interpretation of dreams) didn't
pray at the funeral prayer of Hasan al-Basri. He said, 'How can
I pray when my intention has not yet reached me connecting me to
"Intention (niyyah) is
very important, because it consists of three letters: Nun,
which represents nurullah, the Light of God; ya,
which represents yadullah, the hand of God; and ha,
which represents hidayatullah, the Guidance of Allah. The
niyyah is the Breeze of the Soul."
On the Duties of Saints
He said, "Allah created me to destroy
the materialistic life but people want me to build their materialistic
"The people of God carry the
burden of creation for creation to learn from them. Allah looks
at the heart of his saints with his lights, and whoever is
around that saint will get the blessing of that light."
"The shaikh must know the state
of his murid in three categories: in the past; in the present
and in the future in order for him to raise him up."
"Whoever is initiated by us and
follows us and loves us, whether he is near or far, wherever he
is, even if he is in the East and we are in the West, we nourish
from the stream of love and give him light in his daily life."
On Loud and Silent Dhikr
"From the presence of al-cAzizan
there are two methods of dhikr: the silent and the audible. I
preferred the silent because it is stronger and more advisable."
"The permission for the dhikr
must be given by the Perfected One, in order to influence the
one who is using it, just as the arrow from a Master of Archery
is better than the arrow thrown from the bow of an ordinary
He added Three Principles to Sheikh
Abdul Khaliq's (q) Eight:
9. Awareness of Time ("wuquf
It means to watch one's composure and
check one's tendency to heedlessness. The seeker must know how much time
he has spent in moving towards spiritual maturity and must recognize at
what place he has arrived in his journey towards the Divine Presence.
The seeker must make progress with all
his efforts. He must spend all his time making his one and only goal the
arrival at the station of Divine love and Divine Presence. He must
become aware that in all his efforts and in all his actions Allah
witnesses the smallest detail.
The seeker must make an account of his
actions and his intentions every day and every night and analyze his
actions each hour, each second, and each moment. If they are good, he
thanks God for it. If they are bad, he must repent and ask Allah's
Ya'qub al-Charki said that his shaikh,
Ala'uddin al-Attar said, "In the state of depression you must recite
istighfar (asking forgiveness) excessively, and in the state of
elation, praise of Allah excessively." And he said, "To take into
consideration these two states, contraction and expansion, is the
meaning of wuquf zamani."
Shah Naqshband (q) explained that state
by saying, "You have to be aware of yourself. If you were following the
sharica then you have to thank Allah, or else you must
What is important for the seeker in
this state is to keep secure the smallest period period of time. He has
to stand guard on his self and judge if he was in the Presence of Allah
or if he was in the presence of his ego, at every moment of his life.
Shah Naqshband (q) said, "You have to
evaluate how you spend every moment: with Presence or in Negligence."
10. Awareness of Numbers ("wuquf
This means that the seeker who is
reciting dhikr must observe the exact number of repetitions entailing
the silent dhikr of the heart. To keep an account of the dhikr is not
for the sake of the account itself, but is for the sake of securing the
heart from bad thoughts and to cause it to concentrate more in the
effort to achieve the repetition prescribed by the shaikh as quickly as
The pillar of dhikr through counting is
to bring the heart into the presence of the One who is mentioned in that
dhikr and to keep counting, one by one, in order to bring one's
attention to the realization that everyone is in need of that One whose
Signs are appearing in every creation.
Shah Naqshband (q) said, "Observance of
the numbers in dhikr is the first step in the state of acquiring
Heavenly Knowledge (ilm ul-ladunni)." This means that counting
leads one to recognize that only One is necessary for life. All
mathematical equations are in need of the number One. All creation is in
need of the only One.
11. Awareness of the Heart ("wuquf
This means to direct the heart of the
seeker towards the Divine Presence, where he will not see other than his
Beloved One. It means to experience His Manifestation in all states.
Ubaidullah al-Ahrar said, "The state of Awareness of the Heart is the
state of being present in the Divine Presenece in such a way that you
cannot look to anyone other than Him."
In such a state one concentrates the
place of Dhikr inside the heart because this is the center of power. All
thoughts and inspirations, good and bad, are felt and appear one after
another, circling and alternating, moving between light and dark, in
constant revolution, inside the heart. Dhikr is required in order to
control and reduce that turbulence of the heart.
The Meaning of Nation of Muhammad
"When the Prophet
said, 'The portion of my Nation destined for the Hellfire is
like the portion of Ibrahim destined for the fire of Nimrod,' he
was giving the good news of salvation for his nation just as
Allah had written salvation for Ibrahim
Ya naru kunee bardan wa salaman cala Ibraham
('O fire, be cool and safe for Abraham') [21:69] This is
because the Prophet
said, 'My Nation will never agree on error,' affirming that the
Ummah will never accept wrong-doing, and thus Allah will save
the Nation of Muhammad
from the fire."
Shaikh Ahmad Faruqi said that Shah
Naqshband said: "The Nation of Muhammad
includes whoever comes after the Prophet
. It is
composed of three types:
absolutely everyone who came after the Prophet
and simply heard his message. That the Prophet
came to all people without exception is clear from many verses
in the Qur'an; furthermore, his Community is the Moderating
Witness over all other Communities, and the Prophet
is the one Witness over everybody, including the other
Communities and their own respective witnesses.
2. Ummatu-l-Ijaba: those
who accepted the message.
those who accepted the message and followed the footsteps of the
All of these categories of the
Prophet's Community are saved. If they are not saved by their deeds,
then they are saved by the Intercession of the Prophet
according to his saying, "My intercession is from the big sinners of my
On Reaching the Divine Presence
"What is meant by the hadith of
as-salatu micraj ul-mu'min ("Prayer is the
Ascension of the Believer"), is a clear indication of the levels
of Real Prayer, in which the worshipper ascends to the Divine
Presence and there is manifest in him awe and reverence and
obedience and humility, such that his heart reaches a state of
contemplation through his prayer. This will lead him to a vision
of the Divine Secrets. That was the description of the Holy
prayer. In the life-history of the Prophet
it is said that when the Prophet
would reach that state, even the people outside the city could
hear coming from his chest a sound which resembled the humming
One of the scholar of Bukhara asked
him, "How can a worshipper reach the Divine Presence in his prayer?" He
replied, "By eating from the hard-earned sweat of your brow and by
remembering Allah Almighty and Exalted inside your prayer and outside
your prayer, in every ablution and in every moment of your life."
On Hidden Polytheism - Shirk
Shaikh Salah, his servant, reported:
"Shah Naqshband said one time to his followers, 'Any connection of your
heart with other than Allah is the greatest veil for the seeker,' after
which he recited this verse of poetry:
"The connection with other than God
Is the strongest veil,
And to be done with it,
Is the Opening of Attainment."
Immediately, after he recited this
verse, it came to my heart that he was referring to the connection
between belief (iman) and islam. He looked at me and
laughed and said, 'Did you not hear what Hallaj said? "I rejected the
religion of God, and rejection is obligatory on me even though that is
hideous to Muslims." O Shaikh Salah, what came to your heart -- that the
connection is with belief and islam -- is not the important
point. What is important is Real Faith, and Real Faith for the People of
the Truth is to make the heart deny anything and everything other than
God. That is what made Hallaj say, "I denied your religion and denial is
obligatory on me, although that is hideous to Muslims." His heart wanted
nothing except Allah."
"Hallaj, of course, was not denying his
faith in Islam, but was emphasizing the attachment of his heart to God
Alone. If Hallaj was not accepting anything except Allah, how could one
say that he was actually denying the religion of God? His testimony of
the reality of his Witnessing encompassed and made as child's-play the
ordinary witnessing of the common Muslim."
Shaikh Salah continued, saying, Shah
Naqshband said, "The people of God do not admire what they are doing;
they act only out of the love of God."
Shah Naqshband said,
"Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya said, 'O
Allah I didn't worship seeking the reward of Your Paradise nor
fearing your punishment, but I am worshipping You for Your Love
alone.' If your worship is for saving yourself or for gaining
some reward for yourself, it is a hidden shirk, because you have
associated something with Allah, either the reward or the
punishment. This is what Hallaj meant."
Shaikh Arslan ad-Dimashqi said,
"O Allah, Your religion is
nothing but hidden shirk, and to disbelieve in it is obligatory
on every true servant. The people of religion are not
worshipping You, but are only worshipping to attain Paradise or
to escape from Hell. They are worshipping these two as idols,
and that is the worst Idolatry. You have said, man yakfur
bi-t-taghuti wa yu'min billahi faqad istamsaka bil-curwati-l-wuthqa
("Whoever disbelieves in idols and believes in Allah has
grasped the Firm Handhold") [2:256]. To disbelieve in those
idols and to believe in You is obligatory on the people of
Shaikh Abul-Hasan ash-Shadhili (q), one
of the greatest Sufi Shaikhs, was asked by his shaikh, "O my son, with
what are you going to meet your Lord?" He said, "I am coming to Him with
my poverty." He said,
"O my son, do not ever repeat
this again. This is the biggest idol, because you are still
coming to Him with something. Free yourself of everything and
then come to Him.
"The people of laws and
external knowledge hold fast to their deeds and on that basis
they establish the concept of reward and punishment. If they are
good, they find good and if they are bad they find bad; what
benefits the servant is his deeds and what harms him is his
deeds. To the People of the Way, this is the hidden Shirk,
because one is associating something with Allah. Although it is
an obligation to do (good deeds), yet the heart must not be
attached to those deeds. They should only be done for His sake
and for His love, without expectation of anything in return."
On the Naqshbandi Way
Shah Naqshband (q) said,
"Our Way is very rare and very
precious. It is the curwati-l-wuthqa ("Firm
Handhold"), the way of keeping firm and steadfast in the
footsteps of the Prophet
and of his Companions. They brought me to this Way from the door
of Favors, because at its beginning and at its end, I witnessed
nothing but the Favors of God. In this Way great doors of
Heavenly Knowledge will be opened up to the seeker who follows
in the footsteps of the Prophet
To follow the Sunnah of the Prophet
most important means by which the door will be opened to you. He said,
"Whoever is not coming to our Way, his religion is in danger." He was
asked, "How does someone come to Your Way?" He replied, "By following
the Sunnah of the Prophet
He said, "We have carried in this Way
humiliation, and in return Allah has blessed us with His Honor."
Some people said about him that he was
sometimes arrogant. He said, "We are proud because of Him, because He is
our Lord, giving us His Support!"
"To reach the Secrets of
Oneness is sometimes possible, but to reach the Secrets of
Spiritual Knowledge (macrifat) is extremely
"Spiritual Knowledge is like
water, it takes the color and shape of the cup. Allah's
Knowledge is so great, that however much we take, it is like a
drop of a huge ocean. It like a vast garden, however much we
have cut it is as if we had cut but one flower."
His Attitude Towards Food
Shah Naqshband was, may Allah sanctify
his soul, in the highest states of the denial of desire for this world.
He followed the way of piety, especially in the act of eating. He took
all kinds of precautions in regard to his food. He would only eat from
the barley he had grown himself. He would harvest it, grind it, make the
dough, knead it and bake it himself. All the scholars and seekers of his
time made their way to his house, in order to eat from his table and to
partake the blessings of his food.
He reached such a perfection of
austerity that in winter, he only put old and worn carpets on the floor
of his house, which gave no protection from the bitter cold. In summer
he put very thin woven mats on the ground. He loved the poor and the
needy. He urged his followers to earn money through lawful means, that
is, by the sweat of their brows. He urged them to spend that money on
the poor. He cooked for the poor and invited them to his table. He
served them with his own holy hands and urged them to remain always in
the Presence of Allah, Almighty and Exalted. If anyone of them put a
bite of food in his mouth in a heedless way, he would inform them,
through his state of vision, what they had done and urge them to keep
remembrance of Allah while eating.
He taught that,
"One of the most important
doors to the Presence of Allah is to eat with Awareness. The
food gives the body strength, and to eat with consciousness
gives the body purity."
One time he was invited to a city by
the name of Ghaziat where one of his followers had prepared a dinner for
him. When they sat for dinner he didn't eat. His host was surprised.
Shah Naqshband said, "O my son, I am wondering how you prepared this
food. From the time you kneaded the dough and cooked it, until you
served it, you were in a state of anger. The food is mixed with that
anger. If we eat that food, shaytan will find a way to enter through it
and to spread his evil throughout our bodies."
One time he was invited to the city of
Herat by its king, King Hussain. King Hussain was very happy at the
visit of Shah Naqshband and threw a great feast for him. He invited all
his ministers, the shaikhs of his kingdom and all his noblemen. He said,
"Eat from this food. It is pure food, which I made from the pure
earnings which I inherited from my father." Everyone ate except Shah
Naqshband, prompting the Shaikh ul-Islam of that time, Qutb ad-din, to
ask, "O our Shaikh, why are you not eating?" Shah Naqshband said, "I
have a judge to whom I go for counsel. I asked him and that judge told
me, 'O my son, about this food there are two possibilities. If this food
is not halal (lawful) and you do not eat, when you are questioned
you may say I came to the table of the king but I did not eat. Then you
are safe because you did not eat. But if you eat and you are asked, then
what are you going to say? Then you are not safe.' At that time, Qutb
ad-Din was so overcome by these words that he began to shake. He had to
ask the King's permission to stop eating. Then the King was very
confused and asked, "What shall we do with all this food?" Shah
Naqshband said, "If there is any doubt about the purity of the food it
is better to send it to the poor. Their need will make it halal for
them. If as you say, it is halal, then there is more blessing in giving
it as charity to those who need than in feasting those who do not."
He used to fast most of his days. If a
guest came to him and he had something to offer him, he would sit with
him, break his fast and eat. He told his followers that the Companions
of the Prophet
to do the same. Shaikh Abul Hasan al-Kharqani (q) said in his book,
The Principles of the Way and the Principles of Reaching Reality,
"Keep harmony with friends, but not in sinning. This means that if you
were fasting and someone came to you as a friend, you must sit with him
and eat with him in order to keep proper company with him. One of the
principles of fasting, or of any worship, is to conceal what one is
doing. If one reveals it, for example by saying to the guest, 'I am
fasting,' then pride may enter and ruin the fast. This is the reason
behind the principle."
One day he was given a cooked fish as a
gift. There were in his presence many poor people, among them a very
pious boy who was fasting. Shah Naqshband gave the fish to the poor and
told them, "Sit and eat," and he told the boy who was fasting, "Sit and
eat." The boy refused. He told him again, "Break your fast and eat," but
he refused. He asked him, "What if I give you one of my days of Ramadan?
Will you sit and eat?" Again he refused. He told him, "What if I give
you my whole Ramadan?" Still he refused. He said, "Bayazid al-Bistami
was once burdened with a person similar to you." After that the boy was
seen running after the worldly life, never fasting and never
The incident to which Shah Naqshband
(q) was referring occurred one day when Shaikh Abu Turab an-Naqshabi (q)
visited Bayazid al-Bistami (q). His servant offered him food. Abu Turab
said to the servant, "Come and sit with me and eat." The servant said,
"No. I am fasting." He said, "Eat, and Allah will give you the reward of
fasting for one year." He refused. He said, "Come and eat, I will pray
to Allah that he give you the reward of two years of fasting." Then
Hadrat Bayazid said, "Leave him. He has been dropped from Allah's care."
Later his life degenerated and he became a thief.
His Miracles and Generosity
Shah Naqshband's state is beyond
description and the extent of his knowledge cannot be described. One of
the greatest miracles was his very existence. He often hid his actions
in order not to display miraculous power. Many of his miracles, however,
Shah Naqshband, may Allah bless his
"One day I went out with
Muhammad Zahid (q) to the desert. He was a truthful murid and we
had a pickaxe with which we were digging. As we were working
with the pick we were discussing such deep states of knowledge
that we threw aside the pick and entered deeper into spiritual
knowledge. We were going deeper and deeper until the
conversation led us to the nature of Worship. He asked me, 'O my
shaikh, to what limit does worship reach?' I said, 'Worship
reaches such perfection that the worshipper can say to someone
'die,' and that person will die.' Without thinking I pointed at
Muhammad Zahid. Immediately he fell down dead. He was in the
state of death from sunrise until the midday. It was very hot. I
was very anxious because his body was deteriorating from the
excessive heat. I pulled him under the shade of a tree and I sat
there contemplating the matter. As I was contemplating, an
inspiration came to my heart from the Divine Presence telling me
to say to him, 'Ya Muhammad, Be Alive!' I said it to him three
times. In response, his soul slowly began to enter his body, and
life slowly began to return to him. He gradually returned to his
original state. I went to my shaikh and told him what had
happened. He said, 'O my son, Allah gave you a secret that he
has given to no one else.'"
Shaikh Alauddin al-'Attar (q) said,
"One time the king of
Transoxiana, Sultan Abdullah Kazgan, came to Bukhara. He decided
to go hunting around Bukhara and many people accompanied him.
Shah Baha'uddan Naqshband (q) was in a nearby village. When the
people went out hunting, Shah Naqshband went to the top of a
hill and sat there. While sitting there, it came to his heart
that Allah gave much honor to saints. Because of that honor, all
kings of this world should bow to them. That thought hadn't yet
passed from his heart before a horseman with a crown on his
head, like a king, came into his presence and dismounted from
his horse. With great humility he greeted Shah Naqshband and
stood in his presence in the most polite manner. He bowed to the
shaikh but the shaikh did not look at him. He kept him standing
one hour. Finally, Shah Naqshband looked up and said, 'What are
you doing here?' He said, 'I am the king, Sultan Kazgan. I was
out hunting, and I smelled a very beautiful smell. I followed it
here and I found you sitting in the midst of a powerful light.'
His very thought, 'All kings of this world should bow to the
saints,' had instantly become reality. That is how Allah honors
the thoughts of his saints.
One of his followers who was serving
him in the city of Merv reported,
"One day I wished to go see my
family in Bukhara, having received news that my brother
Shamsuddin had died. I needed to take permission from my shaikh
to go. I spoke with Amir Hussain, the Prince of Herat, to ask
permission on my behalf to Shah Naqshband. On their way back
from Jum'ah prayer, Amir Hussain told him about the death of my
brother and that I wanted permission to go to my family. He
said, 'No it is impossible. How can you say he is dead when I
can see him alive. More than that, I can even smell his smell. I
am going to bring him here now.' He had hardly finished his
words before my brother appeared. He aproached the shaikh,
kissed his hand and greeted Amir Hussain. I hugged my brother
and there was great happiness among us."
Shaikh Alauddin Attar (q) said,
"Shaikh Shah Naqshband was once
sitting in a large association in Bukhara speaking about the
Unveiling of the State of Vision. He said, 'My best friend,
Mawla 'Arif, who is in Khwarazm, (400 miles from Bukhara) has
left Khwarazm for the government building, and he reached the
station of the horse-carriages. When he reached that station he
stayed there for a moment and now he is going back to his house
in Khwarazm. He is not continuing on to Saray. This is how a
saint can see in his station of gnosis.' Everyone was surprised
at this story but we all knew that he was a great saint, so we
recorded the time and the day. One day Mawla 'Arif came from
Khwarazm to Bukhara and we told him about that incident. He was
very surprised and he said, 'In truth, that is exactly what
Some scholars from Bukhara traveled to
'Iraq with some followers of Shah Naqshband (q) when they reached the
city of Simnan. They heard that there was a blessed man named Sayyid
Mahmoud, who was a murid of the shaikh. They went to visit his house and
asked him, "How did you become connected with the shaikh?" He said, "One
night I saw the Prophet
dream, sitting in a very nice place, and beside him sat a man of
majestic appearance. I said to the Prophet
complete respect and humbleness, 'Ya Rasulallah, I was not honored to be
your companion in your lifetime. What can I do in my lifetime that will
approximate that honor?' He told me, 'O my son, if you want to be
honored by being our friend and to sit with us and be blessed, you have
to follow my son, Shah Baha'uddin Naqshband.' I then asked, 'Who is Shah
Bahaudin Naqshband?' He said to me, 'Do you see that person sitting next
to me? This is the one. Keep company with him.' I had never seen him
before. When I awoke I wrote his name and his description in a book that
I have in my library. Much time passed after that dream, until one day,
while I was standing in a shop, I saw a man with a luminous and majestic
appearance come into the shop and sit on a chair. When I saw him, I
remembered the dream and what had happened in it. Immediately I asked
him if he would honor me by coming to my house and staying with me. He
accepted and began to walk in front of me while I followed. I was shy to
walk in front of him, even to lead the way to my house. He did not look
at me once, but took the path directly to my house. I was about to say,
'This is my house,' when he said, 'This is your house.' He walked inside
and went straight to my special room. He said, 'This is your room.' He
went into the closet and he took one book from among hundreds of books.
He gave me the book and asked me, 'What did you write in this?' What I
had written was what I had seen in the dream. Immediately a state of
unconsciousness overtook me and I fainted from the light that poured
into my heart. When I awoke I asked him if he would accept me. He was
Shah Baha'uddan Naqshband."
Shaikh Muhammad Zahid (q) said,
"In the beginning of my
travelling on the Path I was sitting beside him one day, in the
spring season. A craving for watermelon entered my heart. He
looked at me and said, 'Muhammad Zahid, go to that river near us
and bring us what you see and we will eat it.' Immediately I
went to the river. The water was very cold. I reached into it
and found a watermelon under the water, very fresh, as if it had
just been cut from the vine. I was very happy and I took the
watermelon and said, 'O my shaikh accept me.'"
It was reported that one of his
followers was going to visit him. Before the visit, he asked Shaikh
Shadi, one of the senior murids, to advise him. "He said to me, 'O my
brother, when you go to visit the shaikh or when you are sitting in the
presence of the shaikh, be careful not to place your legs so that your
feet face him.' As soon as I left Ghaziut on my way to Qasr al-'Arifan,
I found a tree and lay down under it with my legs extended.
Unfortunately an animal came and bit me on the leg. Later I fell back
asleep in pain, and as I was sleeping again an animal bit me. Suddenly I
realized that I had made a big mistake, I had extended my feet in the
direction of the shaikh. I immediately repented and the animal biting me
One time he was pushed to show
miraculous power in order to defend one of his successors in Bukhara,
Shaikh Muhammad Parsa. This occurred at the time when Shaikh Muhammad
Shamsuddin al-Jazari came to Samarkand, in the time of King Mirza Aleg
Beg, to determine the correctness of the chains of transmission in
Narrations of the Prophetic Traditions. Some of the jealous and corrupt
scholars had complained that Shaikh Muhammad Parsa was giving narrations
of hadith whose chains of transmission were not known. They told
Shamsuddin, "If you try to correct that problem, Allah will give you a
great reward." Shaikh Muhammad Shamsuddin asked the Sultan to order
Shaikh Muhammad Parsa to appear. The Shaikh al-Islam of Bukhara,
Husamuddin an-Nahawi, was there, along with many scholars and imams from
Shah Naqshband (q) came with Muhammad
Parsa (q) to the meeting. Then Shaikh Husamuddin asked Muhammad Parsa
about a hadith. Muhammad Parsa narrated the hadith along with its chain
of transmission. Shaikh Muhammad al-Jazari said, "There is no error in
the hadith, but the chain is incorrect." Upon hearing this the jealous
scholars were happy. They asked Muhammad Parsa to give another chain for
the hadith. He did, and it was again said that it was not correct. They
asked for another chain, and he gave it and still they found fault with
Shah Naqshband interfered, because he
knew that whatever chain he gave they would say it was incorrect. He
inspired Muhammad Parsa to direct a question to Shaikh Husamuddin and
say to him, "You are the Shaikh ul-Islam and the mufti. From what you
have learned of external knowledge and sharica and the
knowledge of hadith, what do you say about such and such narrator?"
Shaikh Husamuddin said, "We accept that person and we base much of our
knowledge of hadith on his narrations, and his book is accepted by us,
and his lineage is one that all scholars accept, and there is no
argument on that matter." Muhammad Parsa said, "The book of that person
that you are accepting is in your house in your library, between such
and such books. It contains 500 pages and its color is such and such,
and the cover looks like such and such, and the hadith you rejected is
written by that person on page such and such."
Shaikh Husamuddin was confused and
doubts came to his heart, because he did not remember seeing such a book
in his library. Everyone was surprised that the shaikh would know about
the book while the owner didn't know about it. There was no alternative
except to send someone to check. The hadith was found as Muhammad Parsa
mentioned. When the king heard about this story, the scholars who
brought the charges were humiliated, and Shah Naqshband and Muhammad
Parsa were raised up.
His State Upon Leaving This World
Shaikh Ali Damman, one of the servants
of the Shaikh, said,"The shaikh ordered me to dig his grave. When I
finished it came to my heart, 'Who is going to be his successor?' He
raised his head from the pillow and said to me, 'O my son, don't forget
what I said to you when we were on our way to the Hijaz. Whoever wants
to follow me must follow Shaikh Muhammad Parsa (q) and Shaikh Alauddin
In his last days, he stayed in his
room. People made pilgrimage to see him and he gave them advice. When he
entered his final illness he locked himself up in his room. Wave after
wave of his followers began to visit him and he gave to each of them the
advice they needed. At one point he ordered them to read Surah Ya Sin.
Then when they had finished the Surah, he raised his hands to Allah. He
then raised his right finger to say the shahada. As soon as he finished,
his soul returned to Allah.
He died on a Monday night, the 3rd of
Rabi'ul-Awwal, 791 H. (1388 CE). He was buried in his garden as he
requested. The succeeding kings of Bukhara took care of his school and
mosque, expanding them and increasing their religious endowments
Ala'uddin al-Bukhari al-Attar
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He is a Star from among the Perfect Saints. He was one of the
scholars who act on what they know (calimun camil).
He is known as the fruit of the tree of Divine Knowledge, the Life
of Spiritual Knowledge, the Eraser of Darkness, the Guide of the
noble and common people alike, the Fountain that never dries up, the
best Guide to Enlightenment on the Path to the Lord. He is first in
removing the thorns of falsehood from the Path of Truth. He stands
in the Center of the Realm of the Poles (aqtab) and he
carries the burden of the spiritual khalifate. He raised the souls
of his brothers until the whole Universe was calling him and
remembering him. The external and internal knowledge of religion
flourished because of his truthfulness.
He was born on the 18th
of Rajab, in the year 802 H. He left everything that he had inherited
from his father to his two brothers and devoted himself to study in the
schools of Bukhara. He became accomplished in all arts, especially in
the Knowledge of Sufism and the Islamic Sciences. He proposed to the
daughter of Shah Naqshband, asking for her hand in marriage. Shah
Naqshband's answer came one day, after midnight, when awakening from his
sleep in Qasr al-'Arifan, he went quickly to the school in Bukhara where
Alauddin lived. There he found everyone asleep except Alauddin, who was
up reading the Holy Qur'an by the light of a tiny oil lamp. He came up
behind him and tapped him on the shoulder but Alauddin didn't respond.
He prodded him more but still he didn't react. Then, through his
spiritual vision, Shah Naqshband perceived that Alauddin was not present
but was in the Divine Presence. He then called him spiritually and
Alauddin immediately looked up and said, "O my Shaykh." Shah Naqshband
(q) said, "I have had a dream in which the Prophet
accepted your proposal for my daughter. For that reason I have come to
you by myself, late at night, to inform you of the good news." Alauddin
said, "O my Shaykh, I have nothing to spend on your daughter or myself,
because I am very poor, having given all my inheritance to my brothers."
Shah Naqshband replied, "O my son, whatever Allah has written for you on
the Day of Promises will accrue to you. So don't worry, Allah will
He said, "One day a
Shaykh asked me, 'How is your heart?' I said, 'I don't know how my heart
is.' He said, 'I know my heart, and it is like the moon in the third
night.' I related this story to Shah Naqshband who said, 'He answered
according to his heart.' When he said this, he stepped on my foot and
pressed on it. Immediately I left myself and I saw that everything in
this world and this universe was in my heart. When I awoke from that
state of unconsciousness, he was still standing on my foot, and he said,
'If the heart is like that, then no one can describe it. What do you
think now about the holy hadith: 'Neither My earth nor My Heavens can
contain Me, but the heart of the Believer contains Me.' This is one of
the hidden secrets you must come to understand.'"
Then Shah Naqshband took
full responsibility for him. He raised him from one state to another and
prepared him to appear in the Divine Presence and to ascend the lofty
towers of Spiritual Knowledge and leave behind all kinds of ignorance in
order to reach the state of Reality. He became unique among the many
followers of Baha'uddan Naqshband (q). The Shaykh ordered him, during
his lifetime, to enlighten some of the Shaykh's followers also. Thus
Shaykh Muhammad Parsa followed him as well. Shaykh Muhammad Parsa wrote
that he heard from Shaykh Alauddin: "I was given a power by my Shaykh,
Shah Naqshband, such that if I were to focus on everyone in this
universe, I would raise all of them to the state of perfection."
One time the scholars of
Bukhara had a disagreement concerning the possibility of seeing Allah in
this world. Some of them denied the possibility and some of them
affirmed it. All of them were followers of Shaykh Alauddin. They came to
him and said, "We are asking you to be judge in this matter." He said,
"Those of you who have denied the possiblity of seeing Allah in this
life, stay with me three days, keeing ablution at all times and
remaining silent." He kept them in his presence for three days,
directing his spiritual power on them, until they all beheld a very
powerful state, causing them to faint. When they regained consciousness,
they came to him crying out,
amanna wa saddaqna ("We believe and we confirm that it is true!")
and kissed his feet. They told him, "We accept what you said, that it is
possible to see Allah in this life." They devoted themselves to him,
never leaving him and making it their custom to kiss the threshhold of
his door. They composed the following verse:
Out of blindness
"How can we reach the Divine?"
Put in their hands the candles of purity.
They will know that the possibility
of seeing is not impossible.
Shaykh Alauddin was very
dear and special to Shah Naqshband, just as Prophet Yusuf
been dear to the heart of his father, Prophet Yacqub
From the Light of His
of seclusion is to leave the earthly connection and to direct
the self to the Heavenly Truth."
"It is said that
the seeker in external knowledge must hold tight to the Rope of
Allah, and the seeker in internal knowledge must hold tight to
Naqshband got new clothes he would give them to someone else to
wear. After they were used he would borrow them back."
makes you forget both worldly power and the Heavenly Kingdom,
this is Absolute Annihilation. And if He makes you forget
Absolute Annihilation, it is the Essence of Absolute
"You have to be
at the level of the people around you and to hide your state
from them, because the Prophet
said, 'I have been ordered to speak with people according to
what their hearts can contain.'"
hurting the hearts of Sufis. If you want their company, you must
first learn how to behave in their presence. Otherwise you are
going to harm yourself, because their way is a very delicate
way. It is said, 'There is no place in Our Way for the one who
doesn't have good manners.'"
"If you think
you are behaving well then you are wrong, because seeing your
own behavior as good is itself a form of pride."
On Visiting Graves
"The benefit of
visiting the graves of your Shaykhs depends on the knowledge you
have of them."
"To be near the
graves of pious people has a good influence, although to direct
yourself to their souls is better and carries with it a higher
spiritual influence. The Prophet
said, 'Send prayers for me wherever you are.' This indicates
that you can reach the Prophet wherever you are, and it applies
to His saints as well, because they take their power from the
or proper way, of visting graves is to direct yourself to Allah
and to make these souls your means (wasilah) to Allah
Almighty and Exalted, humbling yourself to His Creation. You
humble yourself externally to them and internally to Allah. To
bow before human beings is not allowed unless you look on them
as appearances of God. Then that humbleness will be not directed
to them, but it will be directed to the One Who is appearing in
them, and that is God."
The Best Dhikr
"The way of
contemplation and meditation is higher and more perfect than the
way of Dhikr by
la ilaha illallah. The seeker, through contemplation and
meditation (muraqabat), can reach the internal knowledge
and will be able to enter the Heavenly Kingdom. He will be
authorized to look at Allah's Creation and he will know what is
passing in their hearts, even the slightest gossip or
whispering. He will be authorized to enlighten their hearts with
the light from the essence of the essence of the state of
Protecting the Heart
"Silence is the
best state, except under three conditions: you must not keep
silent in the face of bad gossip attacking your heart; you must
not keep silent in directing your heart to the remembrance of
Allah; and you must not keep silent when the vision inside your
heart orders you to speak."
"To protect your
heart from evil thoughts is very difficult, and I protected my
heart for twenty years without letting in a single whisper."
"The best deed
in this Way is to punish the whispering and gossip in the
"I was unhappy
with some of my followers, because they do not try to keep the
state of vision that appears to them."
Love of the Shaykh
"If the heart of
the follower (murid) is full of the love of the Shaykh,
this love replacing all other loves of the heart, then the heart
will be able to receive the transmission of the Heavenly
Knowledge, which has no beginning and no end."
"The murid has
to tell all his states to his Shaykh, and he has to believe that
he will never reach his goal except through the satisfaction and
love of his Shaykh. He must seek that satisfaction and he must
know that all doors are blocked, internal and external, except
the one door, which is his Shaykh. He has to sacrifice himself
for the sake of his Shaykh. Even if he has the highest knowledge
and the highest
mujahada (capacity for effort), he must leave all that
and feel as though he has nothing in front of his Shaykh. The
seeker must give the Shaykh authority in all his affairs,
religious and worldly, in such a way that he has no will before
the will of his Shaykh. The duty of the Shaykh is to look at the
daily activities of the murid and to advise and correct him in
his living and his religion, to help him find the best way to
reach his reality."
"To visit saints
is a Sunnah Wajiba, a duty on every seeker, at least every day,
or every other day, while keeping the limits and respect between
you and your Shaykh. If the distance is great between you and
your Shaykh, visit him at least every one or two months. Don't
rely only on your connection with their heart, lest you become
"I guarantee to
anyone who seeks this Way, that if he imitates the Shaykh with
sincerity he will eventually find its reality. Shah Naqshband
ordered me to imitate him and whatever I did in imitation of him
immediately brought its results."
However, he also warned:
"The masters of
our Way cannot be known except in the Station of Colors and
Changes (Maqam at-Talwin). Whoever imitates their
behavior in that station will succeed. Whoever imitates their
behavior in their Station of Perfection, however, will be
corrupted. He will be safe from corruption only if his master
has mercy on him and reveals to him the Reality of that
What he means, and Allah
knows best, is that the seeker cannot reach Perfection until he has been
perfected. The Station of Color and Changes is the one in which the
seeker struggles hard by fasting, by worshipping, by seclusion, and by
maintaining steadfastness in his love and respect for his master from
one difficulty to another. Imitating his master in this manner will
bring him success, because his master excels in all these efforts.
However, if he imitates the master when the latter is in his state of
Perfection, he will be in danger, just as if he tried to fly without
first growing wings. It is necessary for the seeker to climb the
mountain first before he enjoys the view at the top.
To climb the mountain,
the seeker must journey from the Lower world to the Divine Presence. He
must travel from the ego's world of sensual reality to the soul's
consciousness of the Divine Reality. To make progress on this journey,
the seeker must bring into his heart the picture of his Shaykh (tasawwur),
as it is the most powerful means of detaching oneself from the hold of
the senses. The Shaykh becomes, in his heart, the mirror of the Absolute
Essence. If he is successful, the state of Self-Effacement (ghayba)
or "absence" from the world of the senses, appears in him. To the degree
that this state increases in him, his attachment to the world of the
senses will weaken and disappear, and the station of the Absolute Void
of Unsensing Other-than-Allah will dawn on him.
The highest degree of
this station is called Annihilation (fana'). Thus Shah Naqshband
(q) counselled his murids: "When that state of Self-Effacement comes on
me, leave me alone and give yourself to that state and accept its rights
Of this journey, Shaykh
Alauddin (q) said to his murids:
path to our goal, which is Allah, Almighty and Exalted, is for
Allah to lift the veil from the Essence of the Face of His
Oneness that appears in all creation. He does this with the
State of Erasure (ghayba)
and Annihilation in His Absolute Oneness (fana'), until
His Majestic Essence dawns upon and eliminates consciousness of
anything other than Him. This is the end of the Journey of
Seeking Allah and the beginning of another Journey."
"At the end of
the Journey of Seeking and the State of Attraction comes the
State of Self-Effacement and Annihilation. This is the goal of
all mankind as Allah mentioned in the Qur'an: 'I did not create
Jinn and Mankind except to worship me.' Worship here means
Perfect Knowledge (Macrifat)."
On the 2nd of the month
of Rajab, 802 H., Alauddin said, "I am going to leave you to go to the
other life and no one can stop me." He died on the 20th of Rajab, 802 H.
He was buried in the city of Jaganyan, one of the suburbs of Bukhara.
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He appeared among human beings dressed in the two knowledges, the
exernal and the internal. His conduct and character were so refined that
he reflected the attributes of God to all people. He revived
spirituality within Divine Law and he revived Divine Law (sharica)
within spirituality. People followed him because his way was the best,
for he had inherited Knowledge of the Unseen from the Prophet (s).
He was born in the city of Jarkh, a
suburb of Garnin, between the two cities of Kandahar and Kabul, in
Transoxiana. In his youth he went to the city of Herat to educate
himself. He then went to Egypt where he learned the sciences of sharaca
and logic. He memorized the Qur'an as well as 500,000 hadiths, both the
correct and the false. One of his teachers was Shihabuddin ash-Shirawani,
known as the Encyclopedia of the Age. He continued his education until
he reached the level where he could give fatwas (legal decisions) on any
matter that faced Muslims. He was a mujtahid mutlaq (capable of
independent legal reasoning) in the two knowledges, external and
internal. He returned to his country and followed Baha'uddin Naqshband
(q) then Alauddin al-Attar (q) to educate himself in the hidden
Of his teacher in Spiritual Knowledge
"I was sincere and loyal in my
love for Shaykh Baha'uddin before I even knew him. When I got
the ijaza (permission) to be a mujtahid mutlaq and
to give fatwa, I went back to my country and I went to visit him
and pay my respects. I said to him, with complete humbleness and
obedience, "Please keep me always in the Essence of your
Vision." He said, "You came to me on your way back to your
country of Jarkh?" I said to him, "I love you and I am your
servant because you have the greatest fame and you are accepted
by everyone." He said, "That is not a good enough reason for me
to accept you." Then I replied, "O my Shaykh, the Prophet (s)
said in his authentic hadith, 'If Allah loves someone, he will
influence the hearts of people to love that person as well.'"
Then Bahauddin smiled and said, "I am the spiritual inheritor of
Azizan. What you say is true." When he said this phrase I was so
surprised, because I had heard in a dream one month before, a
voice saying to me "Be the murid of Azizan." At the time I
didn't know who Azizan was. But he mentioned the word as if he
had been aware of the dream. Then I took his leave. He said,
'You may go, but let me give you a gift by which you will
remember me.' He gave me his turban. He said, 'When you see this
or use it you will remember me, and when you remember me you
will find me and when you find me you will find your Way to
"He told me, 'On your way back
to your country of Balkh, if you meet Mawlana Tajuddin al-Kawlaki,
keep your heart from gossiping in his presence because he is a
great saint and he will scold you.' I said to myself, 'I am
going back to Herat by way of Balkh, but I am not going through
Kawlak, where Mawlana Tajuddin is living. So I don't think that
I will see him.' But on the way an event occurred to the caravan
with which I was traveling and obliged us to go by way of Kawlak.
I remembered the words of Shaykh Bahauddin, 'If you pass by
Kawlak, then visit Shaykh Tajuddin al-Kawlaki.' It came to my
heart that Shaykh Bahauddin caused the event to occur so that I
would go to visit the Shaykh. When we arrived in Kawlak, it was
very dark, with no stars in the sky. I went to the mosque to ask
about Mawlana Tajuddin Kawlaki. One person came to me from
behind a pillar and said to me, 'Are you Yacqub al-Charkhi?'
I was astonished. He said, 'Don't be surprised. I knew you
before you came here. My Shaykh, Shaykh Bahauddin, sent me to
take you to Shaykh Tajuddin al-Kawlaki.' On the way to see him,
we met an old man, who said, 'O my son, our way is full of
surprises. Whoever enters it cannot understand it. The seeker
must leave his mind behind.' We then entered the presence of
Mawlana Tajuddin and it was very difficult to keep my heart free
from any gossip. Mawlana Tajuddin gave me a piece of spiritual
knowledge that he possessed and which I had never heard before.
All that I had learned was nothing compared to this knowledge. I
was so happy with my Shaykh, Shaykh Bahauddin, and the way in
which he arranged for me to meet with Mawlana Tajuddin, that my
love for him increased greatly."
"After I reached my country,
from time to time, I would go to Bukhara to visit Shaykh
Bahauddin. In Bukhara there was a majdhub, a person lost
in the Divine Love, who was very well-known and whom people used
to go to for blessing. One day when I intended to visit Shaykh
Bahauddin, I decided to pass by that person and see what he
would say. When he saw me he told me, 'Quickly go to your
destination and don't stop. What you have decided is the best.'
He began to draw many lines in the dust. It came to my heart to
count these lines. If the number of lines was odd then it would
indicate a good sign for me, because the Prophet (s) said,
'Allah is One and He like the odd number.' I counted the lines
and found their number to be odd. It made my heart happy. I went
to visit Shaykh Bahauddin and asked him to give me initiation
and teach me dhikr. So he taught me the station of Awareness of
Number, wuquf cadadi, and he
said to me, as if he had been with me when I met the majdhub,
'O my son, always keep to the odd numbers, just as you wished
the number of lines be odd, and it gave you a sign, so keep that
awareness when you make dhikr."
"I was so deeply immersed in
the fountain of light and love that was my Shaykh, that I was
visiting him more and more and love for him was increasing ever
more in my heart. One day I opened the Holy Qur'an to the ayat,
ula'ik alladheena hada-l-Lahu fa bi hudahum uqtadih ('Those
are the Ones who have been guided by Allah, so follow their
guidance') [6:90]. I was so happy to read that verse. At
that time I was living in a city called Fatahabad. At the end of
the day I decided to visit the mosque and the grave of Shaykh
al-Bakharazi. On my way, a thought came to my heart, which upset
me, so I decided to visit Shaykh Bahauddin instead. When I came
into his presence, it was as if he had been waiting for me. He
looked into my eyes and then said, 'The time of the prayers has
come and then we will speak.' After the prayers he said, 'Look
at me.' I saw in his face a majestic vision, which made my heart
shake. I kept my mouth closed and he said to me 'Knowledge is of
two kinds: knowledge of the heart, and this is the beneficial
knowledge and it is the knowledge of Prophets and Messengers;
and the knowledge of the tongue, the external knowledge, and
this is, as all visible and audible teaching, the Proof of Allah
to His Creation. I wish that Allah will give you good fortune in
the Internal Knowledge. And it came through hadith: 'If you sit
with the People of Truth, sit with them with a true heart,
because they are the spies of the heart. They can enter and see
what is inside your heart.'"
"I have been ordered by Allah,
Almighty and Exalted, and by the Prophet (s), and by my Shaykh,
not to accept anyone in my way unless Allah, the Prophet and my
Shaykhs accept that person. So I will look tonight to see if you
are accepted.' This was the most difficult day of my life. I
felt I would melt from the fear that they would not accept me on
this Way. I prayed Fajr behind him and I was so afraid. When he
looked into my heart everything disappeared and he was appearing
everywhere. I heard his voice saying, 'May Allah bless you. He
accepts you and I accept you.' Then he began to recite the names
of the Masters of the Golden Chain from the Prophet to Abu Bakr,
Salman, Qassim, Jacfar, Tayfar, Abul Hassan, Abu
cAli, Yasuf, Abul cAbbas, cAbdul
Khaliq. Every Shaykh he mentioned appeared in front of him. When
he mentioned cAbdul Khaliq he stopped and cAbdul
Khaliq appeared in front of me. He said, 'Give him to me now,'
and he taught me more of the knowledge of wuquf al-cadadi,
the Science of numbers. He told me that knowledge came to him
through Khidr (s). Then my Shaykh continued reciting the
silsilah (chain), cArif Mahmoud, cAli
Ramitani, Muhammad Baba as-Samasi, Sayid Amir Kulal. They were
each appearing by turn and giving me initiation. I continued
serving him, standing at his door, learning from him, until he
gave me permission to be a guide to people on this Way. He said
to me, 'This Way is going to be the greatest happiness for
Ubaydullah al-A rar reported that Yaqub
said to him: "O my son, I received an order from Shah Naqshband (q) to
accompany Shaykh cAla'uddin al-cAttar after his
[Shah Naqshband's] death. By the order of my Shaykh I was in his company
as his murid from the time of Baha'uddin's death until cAla'uddin's
death in Jaganyan in Bukhara. By the blessing of his companionship my
state was elevated and my training completed."
Ubaidullah al-Ahrar said that Shaykh Yacqub
al-Charkhi and Shaykh Zainuddin al-Khawafi were like brothers when they
studied together in Egypt under the teaching of the scholar, Shaykh
Shihabuddin as-Shirwani. Shaykh Zainuddin said that Shaykh Yacqub
al-Charkhi used to disappear and appear during his lectures. This
miracle symbolizes the state of complete self-effacement into the
Presence in Allah Almighty. This was his state in Egypt, until he came
and followed Shah Naqshband, and then he reached a state of perfection.
He died in the village of Hulgatu, on
the 5th of Safar, 851 H.
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was the Pole of the Circle of the Knowers of God, an Ocean of
Knowledge which would never be exhausted, even though all of creation
were to drink from it to quench their spiritual thirst. He was a King
who owned the pure light of the Unique Essence and released it from its
captivity in the Hidden to spread it among all Knowers. He unveiled the
hidden side of the moons of the Attributes of the Lord from the cradle
until his perfected state. He was given authority as a youth and set to
work to receive the Secret of Secrets and to unveil the Veils. He never
looked at a worldly desire. He progressed until he reached the highest
states of sainthood, where knowledge of the Essence of the Unseen is
bestowed and the secret of Absolute Nihility becomes revealed. Then he
travelled on from Absolute Nihility to Absolute Light. Allah revived
this Order through him during his time and He supported him with His
Favor. He made him a golden link in this Golden Chain, and He made him
one of the most elevated inheritors of the Prophet (s).
Shaykh Ubaydullah (q) tried his best to
wash from the hearts of people the dirt and darkness that had covered
them. He became a sun to light the way of the seekers to the state of
Certainty and the Hidden Treasure of Spiritual Knowledge.
He was born in the village of Shash in
the year 806 H., in the month of Ramadan. It was related that before he
was born his father began to exhibit a tremendous state of renunciation,
which made him leave all worldly actions and enter seclusion during
which he nearly gave up sleep and food, disconnected himself from
people, and took to practice the spiritual way of the tariqat. While in
this spiritual state, his wife became pregnant with Ubaydullah. That is
one reason for the latter's high station; his spiritual training began
while in his mother's womb. When his mother became pregnant, his
father's unusual spiritual state ended and he returned to his normal
Before Ubaydullah was born, the
following incident took place in which his great station was foretold.
Shaykh Muhammad as-Sirbili said, "When Shaykh Nizamuddin al-Khamush as-Samarqandi
was sitting in my father's house, meditating, he suddenly screamed in a
tremendous voice. This made everyone afraid. He said, 'I saw a vision of
an enormous man coming to me from the east, and I could see nothing in
the world except for him. That person is named Ubaydullah and he is
going to be the greatest Shaykh of his time. Allah is going to make the
whole world subject to him, and I hope I will be among his followers.'"
The Beginning of His State and The
State of His Beginning
The signs of happiness were visible on
him in his childhood. The Light of Guidance appeared in his face. One of
his relatives said, "He did not accept the breast of his mother for
nursing until she was clean of any post-partum bleeding and discharge."
He used to say,
"I still recall what I heard
when I was one year of age. From the age of three years, I was
in the Presence of God. When I studied the Qur'an with my
teacher my heart was in God's Presence. I used to think that all
people were like that."
"One day during the winter, I
went out while it was raining and my feet and shoes sank into
the mud. It was very cold. I tried to pull my feet out of the
mud. I realized that my heart was in big danger, because for
that moment I had forgotten to remember Allah. I immediately
began to ask for forgiveness."
He was raised in the home of his uncle,
Ibrahim ash-Shashi, who was the greatest scholar of his time. He taught
him very well and when he had completed his training, his uncle sent him
from Tashkent to Samarqand.
He said to his uncle, "Whenever I go to
study I feel sick." He replied, "O my son, I know the state you are now
in. So I am not going to force you to do anything. Do as you like. You
"One day while in that state, I
went to visit the grave of Shaykh Abi Bakr al-Kaffal. I took a
nap and I had a vision. I saw cIsa (s) in the vision.
I rushed to bow down and kiss his feet. He raised my head and
said, 'O my son, don't become sad, I am taking the
responsibility of raising you and educating you.' That vision
ended. I related the vision to many people. One of them was an
expert in the interpretation of spiritual states. He explained
it this way: 'You are going to be very high in the science of
medicine.' I didn't like his explanation. I told him, 'I know
better what the vision represents: Jesus, Peace and Blessings of
God be upon him, in spiritual knowledge, represents the state of
the Living Ones. Anyone who reaches that state among the saints
will be given the title of cIsawi, which means
Living One. Allah mentioned in the Holy Qur'an a verse
describing them, bal ahya'un cinda rabbihim
yurzaqun ("Truly, they are alive with their Lord,
receiving sustenance") [3:169]. Since he promised to raise
me in that line, it means that I am going to reach the state of
the Living Hearted.' It was not much longer before I received
that state from cIsa (s) in my heart."
"I saw the Prophet, Muhammad
(s), in a grand vision. He was accompanied by a very large
crowd, standing at the foot of a mountain. He looked at me and
he said, 'Ya Ubaydullah, lift up this mountain and take it up to
that other mountain.' I knew that no one can carry a mountain,
but it was a direct order from the Prophet (s). I lifted that
mountain and I carried it to the place he asked me. Then the
Prophet (s) looked at me and said, 'I knew that this power was
in you. I wanted people to know about it and to see the power
you are carrying.' From this I knew that I would be the means of
guiding a great many people to this Way."
"One night I saw Shah Naqshband
(q) come to me and work on my internal state. When he went, I
followed him. He stopped and looked at me. He said, 'May Allah
bless you my son. You are going to have a very high position.'"
"I followed the Qutb
(Spiritual Pole) Nizamuddin al-Khamush in Samarqand. Then I went
to Bukhara, when I was 22 years of age, where I met the great
Knower, Shaykh Sirajuddin al-Birmisi. He lived four miles from
Bukhara. When I visited him he looked at me intensely and he
wanted me to stay with him. But my heart was telling me to
travel to Bukhara. I only stayed with him briefly. He used to
work in the day making clay pots and at night he used to sit in
his prayer room, on the floor. After finishing his 'Isha
prayer, he would sit until Fajr. I never saw him sleep
during the day or the night. I stayed with him seven days, and
never did I see him sleep. He was one of the most advanced in
both external and internal knowledge."
"Then I moved to Bukhara, where
I kept company with Shaykh amiduddin ash-Shashi and with Shaykh
Alauddin al-Ghujdawani. They were among the followers of Shah
Naqshband, Alauddin al-Attar and Yacqub al-Charkhi.
Shaykh Alauddin al-Ghujdawani would sometimes disappear
completely while lecturing, and then he would reappear. He had
an excellent way of speaking. He never stopped making dhikr and
struggling with his self. I met him when he was 90 years of age
and I used to frequent his company. One day I went for a walk to
the grave of Shah Naqshband. When I came back I saw Shaykh
Alauddin al-Ghujdawani coming halfway to meet me. He said, 'I
think it is better that you stay with us tonight.' We prayed
cIsha, he offered me dinner, and then he said to me,
'O my son, let us keep this night alive.' He sat cross-legged
and I sat behind him. He was in perfect meditation and dhikr and
he never moved right or left. I know through my spiritual
knowledge, that a person in that state must be in complete
Presence and Vision of the Divine. I was surprised that at his
age of 90 years, he did not feel tired. I myself, by midnight,
began to feel exhausted. So I began to make litle sounds, hoping
he would give me permission to stop. He ignored me. Then I stood
up to attract his attention, but he still ignored me. Then I
felt shy and I went back to my place and sat again. At that time
I experienced a vision in which he was pouring into my heart the
secret of the Knowledge of Firmness and Constancy (at-tamkin).
From that time on, I felt that whatever difficulty came my way,
I would be able to carry it without any disturbance. I realized
that this Order is based completely on the support of the murid
by the Shaykh. He taught me a lesson that one must struggle to
keep firm and constant in the dhikr, because whatever you
acquire easily, without difficulty, will not stay with you.
Whatever you earn by the sweat of your brow, however, will stay
"One time I went to visit
Shaykh Sayyid Qassim at-Tabrizi in Herat. There I followed an
ascetic way of life leaving everything of the world. When he ate
he would give me the remains, and I would eat them without
saying anything. One day he looked at me and said, 'You are
going to be very rich. I am predicting this for you.' At that
time I had nothing. When I returned to my country, I was a
farmer. I had one acre of land on which I kept some cows. In a
very short time his prediction came true and my land increased
until I had many farms and herds of cattle. All this wealth
didn't affect my heart. I dedicated it all for the sake of
The Superiority of Service
His benevolence in private and public
marked his way. He said,
"One time I went to the school
of Qutb ad-Din as-Sadr in Samar. I found there four people with
very high fevers. I began to serve them, cleaning their clothes
and feeding them, until I too became infected with the same
fever. This didn't stop me from serving them. The fever in me
increased and increased until I felt that I was going to die. I
made an oath to myself, 'Let me die, but let these four people
be served.' I continued to serve them. The next day I found
myself completely cured, while they were still sick."
"To help and serve people, in
the understanding of this Way, is better than Dhikr and
meditation. Some people think that to do the superogatory Sunnas
is better than serving and helping those in need. It is our
view, however, that to take care of people and to help them and
to show them love is better than anything else."
In this regard, Shah Naqshband (q) used
to say, "We love to serve, not to be served. When we serve, Allah is
happy with us, and this brings more attraction to the Divine Presence
and Allah opens that state more for us. However, to be served, brings
pride and weakness to the heart and causes us to recede from the Divine
Sheikh Ubaydullah (q) said,
"I didn't take this tariqat
from books, but I pursued this tariqat by service to people."
"Everyone enters through a
different door; I entered this Spiritual Order through the door
He was extremely strict in keeping the
adab (right conduct) of both external and internal behavior, in
his seclusion and among the people. Abu Sacad al-Awbahi said,
"I accompanied him 35 years and was with him continuously. In all that
time I never saw him remove the skin or the seeds of fruit from his
mouth, so as not to open his mouth with food inside. When he was sleepy
he would never yawn. I never saw him spit. I never saw him do something
which would disgust people. I never even saw him sitting cross-legged.
He sat only on his knees in perfect good conduct."
From His Miraculous Speech about the
"I will tell you a secret from
among the many secrets of Alhamdulillahi Rabbi-l-calameen
('Praise is to Allah, Lord of the Worlds') [1:2]. The
perfect Praise is to Allah from Allah. The perfection of praise
is when the servant praising Him knows that he is nothing. The
servant must know that he is completely empty, no body or form
exists for him, no name and no action belongs to him, but he is
happy because Allah, Almighty and Exalted, made His Attributes
to appear in him."
"What is the meaning of Allah's
saying in the Qur'an, wa qaleelan min cibadi
ash-shakur ('And few of My servants are thankful')
[34:13]? The servant who is truly 'thankful' is the one who can
see the Grantor of favors to human beings."
"What is the meaning of the
verse, f'acrid can man tawalla can
dhikrina ('And leave the one who turns away from Our
Remembrance') [53:29]? It indicates that for the one who is
in deep contemplation of Our Divine Presence, and has reached
the state of seeing nothing except Us, there is no need for acts
of remembrance. If he is in the state of complete vision, do not
order him to recite dhikr as it might cause a coldness in his
heart. While he is totally preoccupied with his state of vision,
anything else is a distraction and might interrupt the state.
"Muhyiddan Ibn cArabi
said, regarding this matter: 'By Dhikrullah, the Remembrance of
God, sins increase, and visions and hearts will be veiled. To
leave the Dhikr is a better state because the sun never sets.'
What he means here is that when the Knower is in the Divine
Presence and in the state of Absolute Vision of the Oneness of
God, at that time everything is annihilated in God. For him
dhikr would be a distraction. The Knower exists in His Existence
and appears in His Appearance. He is in a state of Annihilation
in the Divine Presence, whereas in Dhikrullah he would be in a
state of absence, in need of reminding himself that God is
"What is the meaning of the
verse, kunu maca-s-sadiqeen ('Be with the
trustworthy ones') [9:119]? This means to keep both their
physical and their spiritual company. The seeker may sit in the
physical company of the People of Truth, watch them, listen to
them and Allah will enlighten his heart and will teach him to be
like them. To keep the spiritual company of the People of Truth
the seeker must direct his heart toward their spiritual heart.
The seeker must keep their company always in his heart until
they reflect all their secrets and all their stations on him. He
must not turn his face to anything in this world except to the
master who will take him to the Presence of Allah.
"Love and follow Lovers. Then
you will be like them and their love will reflect on you."
They asked him about the dhikr with LA
ILAHA ILLALLAH. He said,
"Some of the Masters say, LA
ILAHA ILLALLAH is the dhikr of the Common People and ALLAH is
the dhikr of the Preferred People (al-Khawas), and HUWA
is the dhikr of the Preferred of the Preferred. But to me LA
ILAHA ILLALLAH is the dhikr of the Preferred of the Preferred,
because it has no ending. Just as Allah is the Creator in every
moment, so in every moment knowledge increases for the Knower.
For the Knower, his previous state is as nothing once he enters
a new, higher state. The Knower negates one state as he discards
it and affirms a new state as he enters it. This is the
manifestation of LA ILAHA ILLALLAH in the servant of God."
"What is meant by the verse
Ya ayyuha-l-ladheena amanu, aminu ('O you who believe,
Believe!') [4:136] is, 'O Believers, you are safe.' You are
safe because you have connected your heart with Allah Almighty
and Exalted, and anyone who connects his heart with Allah is
About the verse,
limani-l-Mulku-l-yawm, lillahi-l-Wahidi-l-Qahhar ('to whom
belongs the Kingdom on this day? To God, the One, the Irresistible')
[40:16], he said:
"This verse has had many
explanations, but the key is to understand that the kingdom
referred to is the Heart of the Seeker. If Allah looks at the
heart of the seeker with the light of His Vision then He erases
the existence of everything except Allah in his heart. That is
what caused Bayazid to say subhanee ma acdhama
sha'nee ('Glory to Me for my Greatness!') and Hallaj,
ana-l-haqq ('I am God'). In that state the heart is
speaking, the heart from which Allah has erased everything but
"What is the meaning of the
verse kullu yawmin Huwa fi sha'n ('Every day (moment)
He manifests Himself in yet another wondrous way') [55:29]?
This ayat relates to two aspects of Subsistence after
"First, the seeker, after he
realizes the Truth through his heart and is firmly established
in his vision of the Unique Essence of Allah Almighty and
Exalted, returns from the station of Self-Effacement to the
station of Complete Presence. His senses become the place of
appearances of Allah's Names and Actions. He finds in himself
traces of both the Heavenly Attributes and the Worldly
Attributes. He is now able to distinguish between the two
different levels of attributes, and is able to obtain a benefit
from every Attribute and Knowledge.
"The second meaning of the ayat
is that the spiritual traveller finds in himself, in every
moment and in every minuscule particle of time, a Trace of the
Unique Essence of Allah, which cannot be found outside the State
of Annihilation in the Vision of the One. From one fractional
moment to another, he will visualize the Parts of the States of
the Unique Divine Essence, and understand the 'connectedness' of
everything in the Divine Unity. This connectedness varies in its
colors and effects on the person, because it will thus be
distinguished according to the time in which it appeared. This
state is a very rare state and few saints attain it. Those few
in each century who reach it are in a state of great honor, and
they observe the meaning of the verse, kullu yawmin Huwa fi
"What is the meaning of the
hadith, 'Close all doors which face my mosque except the door of
Abu Bakr?' Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (r) existed in a state of perfect
love toward the Prophet (s). All doors to the Prophet (s) are
closed except the door of love, as represented by the open door
of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. The way of the Masters of the Naqshbandi
Order is connected through Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to the Prophet
(s). Love for the Master brings the seeker to the door of Abu
Bakr which leads him to the love of the Prophet, and from the
love of the Prophet to love of Allah Almighty and Exalted."
The Meaning of Siddiq
"If a Truthful Saint
(Siddiq) progressing in the Way of Allah, is heedless for
one moment, he loses in that one moment more than the attainment
of a thousand years. Our Order is a Way in which all states are
multiplied quickly in every moment. One second may be multiplied
to the value of a thousand years."
"There was a group of my
followers who were reported to the khalif as hypocrites. He was
advised, if you kill them you will be rewarded, because people
will be saved from their misguidance. When they were brought in
front of the khalif, he ordered them to be killed. The
executioner approached to kill the first one. His companion
called out and said, 'Leave him and kill me first.' When the
executioner approached the second, a third one called him and
said, 'Kill me first.' This was repeated for all four of them.
"The executioner was very
surprised. He asked, 'What group do you belong to? It is as if
you like to die.' They said, 'We are the group that prefers
others to ourselves. We have reached a state in which for every
action we perform, our rewards are doubled and we are increased
in spiritual knowledge. Each of us tries his best to do good for
someone else, even if only for a brief moment, in order to be
raised higher and higher in the eyes of Allah.' The executioner
began to shake and could not take their lives. He went to the
Khalif and explained their state. The Khalif immediately had
them released and said, 'If these are hypocrites, then there are
no more People of Truth (Siddiq) left on the earth.'"
The Conduct of Shaykh and Murid
He said, "Sufism requires you to carry
everyone's burdens and not to put yours on anyone."
One great Shaykh wrote to him and said,
"If you would like to educate any of your murids, please send me one and
I will teach him." He replied, "I don't have any murids, but if you need
a Shaykh, I have many."
"The best time of the day is
one hour after the cAsr prayer. At that time the
murid must make progress in his worship. One of the best forms
of worship at this time is to sit and evaluate the deeds of the
day. If the seeker finds what he has done to be good, he must
praise Allah. If he finds anything wrong he must ask
"One of the best deeds is to
follow a perfect Shaykh. To follow him and to keep his company
will enable the seeker to reach the Divine Presence of Allah,
'Azza wa Jall."
"Keeping the company of people
of different mentalities causes the people to fall into
"One time Bayazid al-Bistami
(r) was sitting in association and he found disagreement within
the group. He said, 'Look carefully among yourselves. Is there
anyone who is not from us?' They looked and did not find anyone.
He said, 'Look again for there is someone who is not from us.'
They looked again and found the walking stick of someone not
from the group. He said, 'Throw that away quickly, because it is
reflecting its owner, and that reflection is causing
"One day a Sufi came to the
association of the scholar, Mawlana Zainuddin at-Tibabi. The
sufi was asked, 'Who do you love more, your Shaykh or Imam
Abu Hanifa?' He answered, 'For a long time, I was following the
Way of Imam Abu Hanifa very carefully. Yet for all those years
the bad manners that were in my heart would not leave me. After
I had followed my Shaykh for only a few days, all my bad manners
were taken away. So how could I love the Imam better than my
Shaykh even though I give Imam Abu Hanifa full respect?'"
"The Shaykh must appear in the
presence of his murids dressed in the best clothes and beautiful
and neat. It is through their rabitah (heart's
connection) that the murids connect with the Shaykh. If he is
dirty or unkempt, it will be difficult for the murids to
maintain the quality of their rabitah. For that reason
the Prophet (s) ordered his followers to comb their hair and
wear their best clothes during worship."
"Allah gave me great power to
influence anyone I like. Even if I send a letter to King Khata,
who proclaimed that he was God, he would come crawling barefoot
to me. I have never used that power, however, because in this
tariqat the will must follow the Will of Allah, Almighty and
One of Ubaydullah's (q) followers said,
"We were sitting in his presence and he asked for ink, paper and a pen.
He wrote many names. Then he wrote one name on another piece of paper,
and that name was Abu Sacid. He took that paper and put it in
his turban. We asked him, "Who is the man whose name you put in your
turban? He said, 'That is the man all of the people of Tashkent,
Samarqand and Bukhara are going to follow.' After one month we heard
that the King Abu Sacid was coming to take over Samarqand. No
one had ever heard of him before that."
It is related, "One time King Abu Sacid
had a dream in which he saw the great Imam Ahmad al-Yasawi, one of the
khalifs of Yusuf al-Hamadani (q), asking Ubaydullah al-Ahrar (q) to read
al-Fatiha with the intention that Allah give support to Abu Sa'id. In
the dream Abu Sacid asked, 'Who is that Shaykh,' and was
told, 'Ubaydullah al-Ahrar.' When he awoke, he still had the image of
the Shaykh in his mind. He called his advisor in Tashkent and asked him,
'Is there anyone by the name of Ubaydullah?' He said, 'Yes.' Then the
Sultan went to Tashkent to meet him and he found him in the village of
"The Shaykh came out to meet him and
the Sultan recognized him rightaway. Immediately his heart was
attracted. He dismounted and ran to the Shaykh, kissing his hands and
feet. He asked the Shaykh to read al-Fatiha for him. The Shaykh said, 'O
my son, when we need something we read Fatiha once and that is enough.
We already did that as you saw in your dream.' The king was astonished
that the Shaykh knew the content of his dream. He then asked permission
to move to Samarqand and the Shaykh said, 'If your intention is to
support the sharica of the Prophet (s) then I am with
you and Allah will support you.' The king said, 'This is my intention.'
The Shaykh said, 'When you see the enemy coming against you, be patient
and don't attack immediately. Wait until you see the crows coming from
behind you, then attack.' When this came to pass and the two armies were
facing each other, Abu Sacid waited while the larger army of
Abdullah Mirza was attacking. The generals urged Abu Sacid to
attack. He said, 'No. Not until we see the blackbirds coming, as my
Shaykh foretold. Then we will attack.' When he saw the crows coming, he
ordered the army to attack. The horse of Abdullah Mirza became stuck in
the mud, and he was captured and imprisoned. Then Abu Sacid
was able to take all the territories.
"He then called Ubaydullah al-Ahrar (q)
to move to Tashkent from Samarqand. Ubaydullah accepted and moved there
with all his followers. He became the advisor to the king. After some
years Sultan Abu Sacid received the news that Mirza Babar,
nephew of Abdullah Mirza, was moving towards Khorasan with 100,000
warriors in order to avenge his uncle and take back his kingdom. Sultan
Abu Sacid went to Ubaydullah and told him about this, saying,
'We don't have enough soldiers.' Ahrar said, 'Don't worry.' When Mirza
Babar arrived in Samarqand, Sultan Abu Sacid consulted his
advisors. They advised him to retreat to Turkestan. He prepared to
return to Turkestan. The Shaykh came to him, and said, 'How is it that
you are disobeying my orders? I told you not to fear. By myself I am
enough for all the 100,000 soldiers.'
The next day plague attacked the army
of Sultan Mirza Babar, causing them to die by the thousands. Sultan
Mirza Babar made a peace treaty with Abu Sacid. Then Mirza
Babar left Samarqand in defeat with the remains of his army."
Shaykh Ubaydullah (q) died after cIsha
prayer on Saturday, 12th of Rab'i ul-Awwal, 895 H./1489 CE, in the city
of Kaman Kashan, in Samarqand. He left behind many books including
Anas as-Salikin fit-Tasawwuf, and al-cUrwatu-l-wuthqa
li Arbaba-l-ictiqad. He established a big school and
mosque which are still in use today.
His son Muhammad Yahya and many of the
people present at his death saw a light so brilliant shine from his eyes
that it made the candles appear dim. All of Samarqand, including the
sultan, were shaken and grief-stricken at his passing. Sultan Ahmad came
with all his army to the funeral. The Sultan carried his coffin to its
final resting place in this lower world.
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was the Perfection of the Pious, the Genius of the Guides, the
Essence of Sainthood. Upon him was bestowed the Godly Khalifate (al-Khilafa
al-Rabbaniyya), and the Spiritual Kingdom was his shelter. He
combined in his person the Heavenly Knowledge and the Sharaca Knowledge,
and he grasped the best of the tariqat and haqiqat, until
he became the locus of all Heavenly Revelations and Inspirations. In him
appeared the Knowledge of Spiritual Knowers. He is known as the Unique
One in Knowledge and in the Use of the Pen. He carried in his heart the
secrets of attracting the hearts of people. Praise belongs all to Allah
who established in him the Heavenly Revelation, and who gave him
miraculous power in every important matter. He adorned him with the
Perfect Light of Muhammad
beginning of his ascent to the State of Spiritual Knowledge. He was the
Secret of his Shaykh, the Qiblah for his Shaykh's people, the Inheritor
of his Shaykh's knowledge.
He wrote a book on the spiritual
trademarks of his Shaykh, Shaykh cUbaydullah (q), called
Silsilat al-carifeen wa tadhkirat as-siddiqeen wherein he
"I served my Shaykh for 12
years until he died, from 883 to 895 H. The cause of my
connection and my initiation to him occurred one day when I went
with a companion, Shaykh Nicmatullah, from Samarqand to Herat
for the sake of furthering our education. When we reached the
village of Shadiman, we stayed there many days to rest because
it was the hot season. One day Shaykh Ubaidullah al-Ahrar came
to the same city, and we went to visit him at cAsr
"He asked me where I was from.
I said, 'From Samarqand.' He was speaking to us in the finest
manner. Through his speech, he revealed all the private matters
that were in my heart, piece by piece, until he told me why I
was travelling to Herat. That was so amazing that it made my
heart connect with him. He said to me, 'If your goal is to seek
education and knowledge, you can find it here, there is no need
to go to Herat.' I acknowledged that every petty gossip and
every inspiration that were in my heart were as open to him as
the pages of a book; even so, I was still intending to go to
"One of his followers who was
unhappy with my intention said, 'The Shaykh is busy writing, you
can go.' I did not go but waited until the Shaykh came back
again. The Shaykh came back and said to me, 'Now tell me your
real story. Why are you going to Herat? Are you going in search
of the spiritual path or are you going there to seek external
knowledge?' My friend replied on my behalf, 'He is seeking
spiritual knowledge, but he is using the pursuit of external
learning as a cover.' He said, 'If that is the case that is
good.' Then he took me in his private garden and we walked
together until we disappeared from the sight of the people. He
took hold of my hand and I immediately entered the state of
Self-Effacement (fana') for a long time. I understood he
was connecting me to his Shaykh, and from him to his Shaykh, and
from him to his Shaykh, all the way to the Prophet
and from the Prophet to Allah, Glorious and Exalted.
"He then told me that I will be
able to read and understand his writings. He wrapped them up,
gave them to me, and told me,
'In them is the reality
of worship through obedience and piety and humbleness.
By means of this paper, if you follow it, you will
realize a vision of Allah, Almighty and Exalted.
'This Way is based on
the love of God, which is based on following the
footsteps of the Prophet
which, is based on knowledge of his Sunna. The Prophet
said, 'You have to follow my way and the way of my
khalifs after me.' For this you must accompany the
righteous scholars who are the inheritors of the
Knowledge of the Religion and the Inheritors of the
Knowledge of Heaven; the Inheritors of the Unseen
Knowledge and the Knowledge of the Holy Attributes; the
Inheritors of the Love of the Divine Presence. Their
company will lead you to manifest the Divine Knowledge
and to follow the pure way of the Prophet
'You must keep away
from corrupt scholars who use religion as a means to
collect the pleasure of this dunya and to acquire fame
and position. Avoid the Dancing Sufis, who are like
children, irresponsible. Do not listen to those who
speak without understanding about all kinds of nonsense,
about halal and haram (the Lawful and the
Unlawful) without ever speaking of the importance of not
deviating from the beliefs of Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamacat
(the Community of the Way of the Prophet
'Do not listen to the
arguments of the philosophers and the people who
understand nothing of Tasawwuf except its name,
and yet pretend to be Sufis. May Allah, my son, greet
you with the greetings of Islam."
"He then went back to his
association, read Fatiha for me and gave me permission to go to
Herat. I left his presence directing myself to Bukhara. He sent
after me a messenger with a letter addressed to the Shaykh
Kallan, son of Mawlana Sacd ad-din al-Kashgari. In it
was written, 'You have to look after my son who is carrying my
letter and to keep him from mixing with bad scholars.' When I
saw that lovely gesture from him, my love for him deepened in my
heart. Yet I didn't go back to him, but continued to Herat.
"The way to Bukhara took a long
time, because my mount was weak. I had to stop every one or two
miles. I had gone through six donkeys by the time I reached
Bukhara. When I finally arrived, my eyes became afflicted and I
was unable to see for many days. When my condition improved and
I prepared to leave for Herat, I came down with a high fever. I
was so sick that it came to my heart that if I continued I might
die. I decided not to travel further but to go back and serve
"After I reached Tashkent, I
decided to visit Shaykh Ilyas al-cAshaqi. I left my
books, my clothes and my animal with a caretaker. One of Shaykh
cUbaydullah's servants saw me on the way. I said, 'Let us visit
the Shaykh.' He asked, 'Where is your animal? Bring it to my
house and then we will go to visit.' As I was going to retrieve
my animal, a voice came to me saying, 'Your animal is dead, and
all that is on it has disappeared.' A great confusion came over
me. I realized that the Shaykh was not happy with my planned
visit to Shaykh Ilyas. The thought came to my heart, 'Look how
my Shaykh is directing all his power to lift me up while I have
decided to visit someone else.' I decided not to visit Shaykh
Ilyas al-'Ashaqi but instead to go directly to Shaykh cUbaidullah
al-Ahrar. When this came to my heart, a man came to me and said,
'We have found your animal with all your possessions on it.' I
returned to the person with whom I had left the animal and he
told me, 'I tied your animal here, and when I looked up, it had
disappeared. I looked everywhere. It was as if the earth had
swallowed it up. Then I returned again, and there was the
animal, right where I had tethered it in the first place.' I
took my animal and set off to Samarqand to Shaykh cUbaidullah
al-Ahrar (q). When I arrived he came out saying, 'Welcome,
welcome.' I stayed with the Shaykh and never left him until he
left this world."
He had perfect belief. He accepted
whatever his Shaykh taught him and nothing anyone could say would change
that belief. He said,
"My Shaykh used to speak about
spirituality and secret knowledge. He would always direct his
speech towards me and ask me, 'When you hear me speak about
Divine Realities, does it cause any conflict in you with regard
to the beliefs which you got from your parents and your teachers
and scholars?' I said, 'No my Shaykh.' He said, 'Then you are
one to whom we can speak.'"
"One day my Shaykh was sick and
he ordered me to get a doctor from Herat. Mawlana Qassim came to
me and said, 'O Muhammad, make your travelling very quick coming
and going, because I can't stand for the Shaykh to be sick for
long.' I traveled quickly and returned with the doctor but I
found that the Shaykh was well and Mawlana Qassim had died. My
trip had taken me thirty-five days. I asked my Shaykh, 'How did
Mawlana Qassim die when he was so young?' He said, 'When you
left Mawlana Qassim came to me and said, 'I am giving my life
for your life.' I told him, 'O my son, don't do that, because so
many people love you.' He said, 'O my Shaykh I didn't come here
to consult you. I have made the decision and Allah has accepted
it from me.' No matter what I said, I couldn't change his mind.
The next day he became sick with the sickness I had, which was
reflected on him. He died on the 6th of Rabi'ul Awwal and I was
immediately well, without the need of a doctor.'"
Shaykh Muhammad az-Zahid died on the
12th of Rabi'ul Awwal, 926 H/1520 CE in Samarqand.
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He is the Ghawth (Arch-Intercessor) of the Famous Saints and
the Blessing of the Scholars of Islam. He is the Dawn and the Light of
both the East and the West. He is the Master of the Kingdom of Guidance.
He grew up in the house of his uncle who taught him the best manners,
educated him in spiritual and religious knowledge, and nursed him from
the fount of morality and ethics. He quenched his thirst with the
Heavenly Realities and Unseen Knowledge, until his heart became a House
of Revelation, as Allah said in the Holy Hadith, "Neither my heaven nor
my earth could contain Me, but the heart of my Believing Servant
He was known in his time as Darwish
Wali. He grasped all kinds of understandings of the Religion and he was
able to erase the mischief and the misguidance of many of the false
teachers of his time. He revived languishing hearts and he mended broken
hearts, until he became the blessing of his time and the Human Essence
of Guidance. He had many followers throughout the country. His house and
his mosque were filled with visitors asking and seeking his guidance.
One time after an association he had
just held with him and other murids, Shaykh Muhammad az-Zahid told him
to go up a certain hill at some distance and wait for him there. The
Shaykh told him he would be coming later. Darwish Muhammad was so
obedient to his Shaykh that he surrendered his will to him completely.
His conduct was perfect. He went and waited for the Shaykh to come,
without using his mind to ask: "how shall I go there, what shall I do
when I get there, etc." He moved immediately. He arrived and began to
wait. The time for afternoon prayers came and the Shaykh did not show
up. Then the sun set. His ego was telling him, "Your Shaykh isn't
coming; you have to go back. Maybe the Shaykh forgot." His truthful
belief, however, told him: "O Darwish Muhammad, believe in your Shaykh
and believe that he is certainly coming, as he said. You have to wait."
How was Darwish Muhammad's heart to
believe his ego when his heart was being lifted up to be with his Shaykh?
He braced up and waited. Night came and it was very cold on the hill. He
was freezing. He spent all night awake and his only source of warmth was
his dhikr of "la ilaha illallah". Dawn came and the
Shaykh had still not shown up. He was hungry and started looking for
something to eat. He found some fruit trees, ate, and kept waiting for
the Shaykh. The day went, and then the next day. He was again in a big
struggle with his ego, but he kept thinking: "If my Shaykh is a real
Shaykh, he knows what he is doing."
A week went and then a month. The
Shaykh was not coming. The only distraction Darwish Muhammad had from
waiting was dhikrullah, and his daily prayers were his only
other activity. He kept on only until the power of his dhikr
made the animals come and sit around him to make dhikr with
him. He realized that this miraculous power had come to him from his
Winter came and the Shaykh didn't come.
It began to snow. It was extremely cold and there was no more food. He
began to cut the bark of the trees and feed himself on the moisture
inside, and from roots and whatever green leaves he could find. Deer
came to him and he began to milk the ewes. This was another miracle
which appeared to him. The ewe did not move when he milked her, and
another came. He was being lifted up to higher and higher spiritual
levels, and his teacher was sending him spiritual knowledge through
these miracles and visions. Khidr
appearing to him and teaching him.
A year passed, then another, then a
third, and then the fourth year. The Shaykh was not coming, and Darwish
Muhammad was ascending to a higher and higher states of patience (sabr).
He kept thinking, "My Shaykh knows." At the end of the seventh year he
began to smell the fragrance of his Shaykh filling all the air around
him. He ran to meet the Shaykh with all his wild animal companions in
his train. He was completely covered with hair.
Shaykh Muhammad az-Zahid arrived. When
Darwish Muhammad saw him, he felt intense joy in his heart, and immense
love for his Shaykh. He ran to him and kissed his Shaykh's hand, as he
was crying out: "Salamu `alaikum, O my Shaykh! How I love you, O my
His Shaykh said: "What are you doing
here? Why did you not come down?" He said, "O my Shaykh, you said to
come here and wait for you, so I waited for you." The Shaykh said: "What
if I died, or perhaps I forgot?" Darwish Muhammad said, "O My Shaykh,
how are you going to forget when you are the representative of the
He said, "What if something had happened to me?" Darwish Muhammad said,
"O my Shaykh, if I had not stayed here and waited for you and obeyed,
you would have never come to me by permission of the Prophet
Darwish Muhammad had detected in his heart that his Shaykh was coming by
the order of the Prophet
The Shaykh laughed and said: "Come with
me." At that moment he poured to him the secret and the power of this
Golden Chain of the Naqshbandi order that he had in his heart. He then
ordered him to be the Shaykh of the murids. Darwish Muhammad remained in
his Shaykh's service until Shaykh Muhammad az-Zahid passed away.
Darwish Muhammad died on the 19th of
Muharram, 970 H.
Muhammad Khwaja al-Amkanaki
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was the Inheritor of the Secrets of the Prophet
the Ultimate of the Preferred Saints. He was the Imam whose majestic
position everyone acknowledged and whose blessings reached far and wide.
He was born in Amkana, a village of
Bukhara. He was raised by his father and his uncle. During his childhood
he was well guided, until he became like one beneath an exalted dome,
protected from every shame. He never discovered any good characteristic
except he acquired it. He discarded even the smallest mistakes and
errors. He never encountered a high station without encompassing it, nor
a valuable secret without keeping it, nor a delicious spiritual taste
without savoring it. He followed his father like the sun on a bright day
and like a full moon in a dark night. He sat on the Throne of Succession
and he tried his best in lifting up the hearts of people. He wore the
cloak of the Qutbs (Spiritual Poles) and every atom in this world,
whether human or animal, plant or inanimate object, was supported by his
spirituality. The light of his power enlightened the Way of this Order,
so that his fame was spread far and wide, and people ran to him to
receive his knowledge, to be guided by his light and be enlightened by
his guidance. His door became the aim of every Knower and the Qiblah
(Focus of Spiritual Attention) of the hearts of the Pious. He was
dressed and decorated with the attributes of the Divine, attesting to
his high position in the Heavenly Realm.
These are some of his blessed sayings:
"Everyone must know that for
the seeker to progress in this Tariqat, he must first sear into
his heart the image of his Shaykh, until the traces of the heat
of that connection become visible. He must direct that heat to
the Essential, Universal Heart. This is the level of the heart
in which exist the combined realities of all humanity and all
creation, worldly and heavenly. Although there is no physical
incarnation, all ancestors and eventually all creation exist in
the Essential heart. The seeker must not be distracted by the
details of the creation, but must direct the power of the Heart
towards the One whose Reality encompasses everything. He must be
free of any doubt regarding the manifestation of the One who is
always Present, and must know that nothing exists except Allah,
Almighty and Exalted. He must see with the Eye of Truth that all
creation appears and exists through Allah alone."
"The demand of this Order is to
direct yourself to the State of Erasure and Annihilation, which
is the First State of Bewilderment. This will lead you to the
State of Receiving the Pure Light of the Essence. In that state
there will be no other element existing except that Pure
Essence. Even the Names and the Attributes cannot exist in that
State of the Pure Essence. The one who can reach the state of
the Pure Essence is higher than the one who is in the State of
the Names and Attributes."
He died in 1016 H.
Muhammad al-Baqi Billah
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was the Knower, Annihilated in God (fana billah) and
Existing in His Existence (baqa billah), who was lifted to the
highest station of Vision. He was a Secret of Allah's Secrets and a
Miracle of Allah's Miracles. He combined in his person the two types of
knowledge: the Outer Knowledge and the Heavenly Knowledge. God gave him
from the two Oceans, and conferred on him Authority in the two worlds of
men and Jinn.
Imam Rabbani Ahmad al-Faruqi (q) said,
"Muhammad al-Baqi was the One Sitting on the Throne of all Shaikhs, and
he was the Deputy of all Masters of the Naqshbandi Golden Chain, who
reached the end of the Infinite, who achieved the highest states of
wilayat (Friendship of God). He was the qutb (Spiritual
Pole) who supported every creature on this earth. He unveiled the
secrets of Reality. He was the Verifier of the Station of the Reality of
was the Pillar of the People of Guidance. He was the Essence of the
Knowers and the Guide of the Verifiers (muhaqqiqin)."
He was born in 972 H. in the city of
Kabul in the land of `Ajam which was a colony of the Sultanate of India.
His father was the judge Abdu-s-Salam. He went to India in the first
instance on personal business. There he was attracted to an attraction
from God's attraction. He left this worldly life behind and sought
spiritual knowledge from the Master of the century. He kept company with
masters and saints, until he himself became an ocean of intellect and a
saint of spirituality. He traveled continuously until he reached the
city of Samarqand. There he connected himself to the Master of his time,
Muhammad Khwaja al-Amkanaki (q). He received from him the Way of the
Naqshbandi Order. In a very short time he received what most seekers
require a lifetime to receive. He was elevated also through the
spiritual care of Ubaidullah al-Ahrar (q). His honor became known
everywhere. His shaikh, Muhammad Khwaja al-Amkanaki, authorized him to
take followers and to train them in the conduct of the Order. He ordered
him to go back to India. He predicted, "You are going to have a follower
who will be like the sun." This would be Imam Rabbani Ahmad al-Faruqi
He moved back to India and stayed in
the city of Delhi-Jahanabad, which he filled with faith and knowledge
and secrets and lights. Through him the Naqshbandi Order was spread with
great swiftness throughout the Indian Subcontinent and millions of
people were connected to him through his deputies. All nations in the
Subcontinent were attracted to his knowledge and his Heavenly Power and
to the Prophetic Characteristics dressing him. It became known
throughout the Indian Subcontinent that anyone coming to him and looking
in his eyes, or sitting in his association doing dhikr, would enter a
state of Self-Effacement, through which he could reach a state of
Annihilation, in a single meeting. By this miraculous power he attracted
millions of people, until this Naqshbandi Order was on the tongue of
every person in his time.
He died on Wednesday, the 14th of
Jumada al-Akhira, 1014 H., in the city of Delhi at the age of 40 years
and four months. His grave is on the West side of the city of Delhi.
He passed the Secret to his successor,
the Shaykh of this Chain, the Reviver of the Second Millennium, al-Imam
ar-Rabbani Mujaddid alf-ath-Thani, Shaykh Ahmad al-Faruqi as-Sirhindi
Ahmad al-Faruqi as-Sirhindi
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was the Pearl of the
Crown of the Knowledgeable Saints. He was the Treasure of Those who Came
Before and of Those who Came After. In him were combined all their
favors and generosity. He was the Sinai of Divine Manifestation, the
Furthermost Lote Tree of the Unique Knowledge, and the Fountain of the
Hidden Prophetic Knowledge. He was the Genius of Scholars and he was the
Sultan of the Earth, which smiled when he was born and was honored by
his existence. He was the perfect Perfected Guide. He was the Caller to
Allah's presence, the One Qutb and the Unique Heavenly Imam. He was the
Reviver of the Second Millennium, Sayyidina wa Mawlana (our Leader and
Master) ash-Shaikh Ahmad al-Faruqi as-Sirhindi, ibn ash-Shaikh cAbdul
Ahad son of Zainu-l-cAbidin son of cAbdulhayy, son
of Muhammad son of Habibullah, son of Raficuddin, son of Nur,
son of Sulayman, son of Yusuf, son of cAbdullah, son of Ishaq,
son of cAbdullah, son of Shucayb, son of Aad, son
of Yusuf, son of Shihabuddin, known as Farq Shah al-Qabidi, son of
Nairuddin, son of Mahmud, son of Sulayman, son of Mascud, son
of cAbdullah al-Waci al-Asghari, son of cAbdullah
al-Waci al-Akbar, son of Abdu-l-Fattah, son of Ishaq, son of
Ibrahim, son of Nair, son of Sayyidina cAbdullah (r), the son
of Amir al-Mu'minin, the khalif of the Prophet
Sayyidina cUmar al-Faruq (r).
born on the day of 'Ashura, the 10th of Muharram in the year 971 H., in
the village of Sihar Nidbasin. In some translations it is called Sirhind
in the city of Lahore, in India. He received his knowledge and education
through his father and through many shaikhs in his time. He made
progress in three tariqats: Suhrawardiyya, Qadiriyya, and Chistiyya. He
was given permission to train followers in all three tariqats at the age
of 17 years. He was busy in spreading the teachings of these tariqats
and in guiding his followers, yet he felt that something was missing in
himself and he was continuously searching for it. He felt an interest in
the Naqshbandi Sufi Order, because he could see by means of the secrets
of the other three tariqats that it was the best and highest. His
spiritual progress eventually brought him to the presence of the Ghawth
and Qutb of his time, ash-Shaikh Muhammad al-Baqi, who had been sent
from Samarqand to India by the order of his shaikh, Muhammad al-Amkanaki.
He took the Naqshbandi Order from the shaikh and stayed with him for two
months and some days, until Sayyidina Muhammad al-Baqi opened to his
heart the secret of this tariqat and gave him authorization to train his
murids in the Order. He said about him, "He is the highest Qutb in this
predicted his advent in one of his hadith when he said, "There will be
among my nation a man called Silah. By his intercession many people will
be saved." It was mentioned in the collection of Suyuti, Jamc
ul-Jawamic. What confirmed the truth of this hadith is
what Imam Rabbani wrote about himself: "God has made me the Silah
between the two Oceans." Silah means "connection." So he meant
that God had made him a connection between the two oceans -- the two
knowledges, external and internal. Shaikh Mir Husamuddin said, "I saw
of my dreams standing on the minbar (pulpit) and praising Shaikh Ahmad
as-Sirhindi. The Prophet
saying, 'I am proud and happy with his presence among my Nation. God has
made him a reviver of the religion.'"
saints predicted his advent. One of them was Shaikh Ahmad al-Jami (q).
He said, "After me will appear seventeen men of the People of God, all
of whom are named Ahmad and the last one among them will be at the head
of the millennium. He is going to be the highest of them and he is going
to receive the state of Unveiling. He is going to revive this religion."
to predict his advent was Mawlana Khwaja al-Amkanaki (q). He said to his
khalif, "A man from India is going to appear. He will be the Imam of his
century. He will be trained by you, so hurry to meet him, because the
people of God are awaiting his arrival." Muhammad al-Baqi (q) said,
"That is why I moved from Bukhara to India." When they met he told him,
"You are the one whose appearance the shaikh Muhammad Khwaja al-Amkanaki
predicted. When I saw you I knew you were the Qutb of your time. When I
entered the region of Sirhind in India, I found a lamp which was so big
and so bright that its light reached up to the heavens. Everyone took
from that lamp's light. You are that lamp."
said that the shaikh of his father, Shaikh cAbdul Ahad, who
was a shaikh of the Qadiri Order, had been given a jubba (cloak)
from his shaikh which had been passed down from the Ghawth al-Azam,
Sayyidina cAbdul Qadir al-Jilani (q). Sayyidina cAbdul
Qadir had said about it to his successors, "Keep it for that one who is
going to appear at the end of the first millennium. His name is Ahmad.
He is going to revive this religion. I have dressed him with all my
secrets. He combines in himself both the internal and external
The Seeking of the Kings and the Kings of Seeking
Sayyidina Ahmad al-Faruqi said,
"Let it be known to you that the Heavenly Guardians attracted me
because They wanted me to be attracted, and They facilitated for me
the passage through time and space (at-tayy) in the different
states of the seeker. I found that God is the Essence of all matter,
as it had been said by the People of Sufism. Then I found God in all
matter without incarnation (hulul). Then I found God together
with all matter. Then I saw Him ahead of everything and then I saw
Him following everything. Finally I reached a state where I saw Him
and I saw nothing else. This is what is meant by the term,
Witnessing the Oneness, which is also the state of Annihilation
(fana'). That is the first step in Sainthood, and the highest
state in the Beginning of the Way. This vision appears first on the
horizons, then secondly in the Self. Then I have been lifted to the
station of Subsistence (baqa') which is the second step in
"This is a station which many saints did not speak about because
they did not reach it. All of them speak about the station of
Annihilation, but following that state is Subsistence. In that state
I found all creation another time, but I found that the essence of
all these creations is Allah, and Allah's Essence is the Essence of
Myself. Then I found Allah in everything, but in reality in myself.
I was raised to a higher state, to find Allah with everything, but
in reality He was with myself. Then I was lifted to see Him
preceding everything, but in reality He was preceding myself. Then I
was lifted to a state where He was following everything, but in
reality He was following myself. Then I saw Him in everything, but
in reality He was in myself. Then I saw everything and I didn't see
God. And this is the end of the Stations by which They had brought
me back to the beginning. In sum, they lifted me to the Station of
Annihilation, then to the station of Existence, then they brought me
back to be with people, in the Station of the common people. This is
the highest state in guiding people to the Presence of God. It is
the perfect state of guidance, because it matches the understanding
of human beings."
said, "I accompanied today one who has reached the End of Ends, the
Qutub of all Creatures, the Perfect Man, Shaikh Muhammad al-Baqi.
Through him I received incredible blessings, and by his blessing I
was granted a power of attraction that allowed me to reach every
human being that Allah had created. I was honored to attain a
station that combines the state of the Ending with the state of the
Beginning. I achieved all the states of Seeking and I reached the
Ending, which is the meaning of 'Reaching the name of ar-Rabb' (the
Sustainer), by the support of the Lion of God, Asadullah, cAli
ibin Abi Talib, May God ennoble his face. I was raised up to the
state of the Throne, which is the Reality of the Truth of Muhammad
by the support (madad) of Shaikh Shah Baha'uddin Naqshband.
Then I was lifted even higher, to the state of Beauty, which is the
state of the Truth of the Muhammadan Qutbs, by the support of the
Prophetic Holy Spirit.
was supported by Shaikh Ala`addin al-Attar, from whom I received the
states of the Greatest Spiritual Poles (al-qutubiyyati-l-cuzma)
from the Presence of Muhammad
Then Allah's Heavenly Care attracted me and I ascended to a State
that is beyond that of the Qutubs, the Special Original State. Here
the support of al-Ghawth al-Aczam, Abdul Qadir Jilani (q)
pushed me up to the State of the Origin of Origins. Then I was
ordered to come back down, and as I was descending I passed by all
39 tariqats other than the Naqshbandiyya and the Qadiriyya. I looked
at the states of their shaikhs and they greeted me and saluted me
and they threw on me all their treasures and all their private
knowledge, which unveiled to me realities which had never been
unveiled to any person in my time.
"Then on my descent I met Khidr
and he adorned me with the Heavenly Knowledge (cilmu-l-ladunni)
before I reached the state of the Qutubs."
"Abu Dawud said in an authentic hadith that the Prophet
said, 'Allah will send at the beginning of every century someone by
whom the religion will be revived,' but there is a difference
between the Reviver of the Century and the Reviver of the
Millennium. It is like the difference between one hundred and one
a vision, the Prophet
gave me good tidings: 'You are going to be a spiritual inheritor and
Allah is going to give you the authority to intercede on behalf of
hundreds of thousands on the Day of Judgment.' He bestowed on me
with his holy hand the authority to guide people, and he said to me,
'Never before have I given that authority to guide people.'"
"The knowledge that is emerging from me is coming from the state of
Sainthood, but I am receiving it from the Light of the Prophet
Saints are unable to bring forth such knowledge, because it is
beyond the knowledge of saints. It is the Knowledge of the Essence
of this Religion and the Essence of the Knowledge of Allah's Essence
and Attributes. No one before has spoken about it and Allah has
granted me to be the one to revive the religion in its second
"Allah unveiled to me the Secrets of the Unique Oneness and He
poured into my heart all kinds of Spiritual Knowledge and its
refinement. He unveiled to me the Secrets of the ayats of Qur'an so
that I found beneath every letter of the Qur'an an ocean of
knowledge all pointing to the High Essence of Allah Almighty and
Exalted. If I were to reveal one word of the meaning of it they
would cut off my head, as they did to Hallaj and to Ibn 'Arabi. This
is the meaning of the hadith of the Prophet
in Bukhari, narrated by Abu Huraira (r), "The Prophet
poured into my heart two kinds of knowledge, one of which I have
revealed and another which if I were to reveal they would cut my
"Allah, Almighty and Exalted, has shown me all the names of those
who are entering our Tariqat, from the day of Sayyidina Abu Bakr (r)
to the Day of Judgment, both men and women, and all of them are
going to enter Paradise, with the intercession of the shaikhs of the
"Al-Mahdi will be one of the followers of this Tariqat."
"One day I was in association with my followers doing dhikr and it
came to my heart that I had done something wrong. Then Allah opened
to my eyes, 'I have forgiven anyone who sits with you and anyone
asking intercession by means of you.'"
"Allah has created me from the residue of His Prophet
"The Kacba was always coming and making tawaf
(circumambulation) around me."
"Allah Almighty and Exalted said to me, 'Anyone for whom you pray
janaza (funeral prayer) will be forgiven, and if anyone mixes
earth from your grave with the earth of their grave, they will be
"Allah said, 'I have given you special gifts and perfections which
no one will receive other than you until the time of the Mahdi.'"
"Allah gave me an incredible power of guidance. Even if I direct my
guidance to a dead tree, it will become green."
great shaikh wrote to him asking, "The states that you reached and you
are speaking about, did the Sahaba receive them, and if they did,
did they receive them at one time or did they receive them at separate
times?" He answered, "I cannot give you an answer unless you come into
my presence." When the shaikh came, he immediately unveiled to him his
spiritual reality and cleaned the darkness of his heart until the shaikh
fell prostrate at his feet and said, "I believe, I believe! I see now
that these states were all revealed to the Sahaba simply by looking at
time in the month of fasting, Ramadan, he was invited by ten of his
murids to break fast with them. He accepted the invitation of each of
them. When it came time to break the fast, he was present at each of
their houses, breaking the fast, and they saw him in each of their
houses at the same time.
time he looked at the sky and it was raining. He said, "O rain stop
until such and such hour." It stopped until the exact time he had said,
after which it started raining again.
time the King ordered that a man be executed. That man came to Shaikh
Amad and said, "Please write a stay of execution for me." He wrote to
the Sultan, "Don't execute this man." The Sultan was afraid of Sayyidina
Ahmad al-Faruqi and pardoned the man.
time a murid made intention to visit Shaikh Ahmad al-Faruqi (q). On his
way he was invited to be the guest of a man who disliked the shaikh. The
murid, however, didn't know this. After dinner, the host began reviling
the shaikh. As he went to sleep that night, in his heart he was saying,
"O Allah, I came to visit the shaikh, not to hear someone curse the
shaikh. Forgive me." Then he slept and when he awoke he found that the
man had died. He went quickly to the shaikh and began to tell him the
story. Sayyidina Ahmad al-Faruqi raised his hand and said, "Stop! There
is no need to tell me what happened. I am the one who caused it."
was authorized to give Tariqat in three tariqats: Naqshbandi,
Suhrawardi and Chistiyya."
so famous that the scholars of external knowledge in his time became
jealous of him. They went to the king and told him, "He is saying things
that are not accepted in the religion." They pushed the King until he
put him in jail. He stayed in jail for three years. His son, Shaikh
Sayyid, said, "He was under very intense security in jail. Guards
surrounded his room on every side. Yet every Friday he would be seen in
the big mosque. No matter how much security he was under, he would
disappear from prison and appear in the mosque." From this they knew
they could not put him behind bars and therefore they released him.
wrote many books, one of the most famous of which is the Maktubat.
must be known that Allah has placed us under His Obligations and His
Prohibitions. Allah said, 'Whatever the Prophet gave you, take
it, and whatever he prohibited you, leave it.' [59:7] If we are
going to be sincere in this, we have to attain to Annihilation and
the love of the Essence. Without these we cannot reach this degree
of obedience. Thus we are under another obligation, which is to seek
the Way of Sufism, because this Way will lead us to the state of
Annihilation and the love of the Essence. Each Order differs from
the other in its states of perfection; so too does each Order keep
the Sunnah of the Prophet
and have its own definition of what that entails. Every order has
its own way of keeping the Sunnah of the Prophet
Our Order, through its shaikhs, requires us to keep all the commands
of the Prophet
and to leave all the things he prohibited. Our shaikhs don't follow
the easy ways (rukhas) but insist on keeping the difficult
ways. In all their seeking they keep in mind the verse of Qur'an,
'Men whom neither business nor trade will divert from the
Remembrance of Allah' [24:37].
the journey leading to the unveiling of the Divine Realities, the
seeker moves through various stages of knowledge of and proximity to
- "Moving to
Allah is a vertical movement from the lower stations to the
higher stations; until the movement surpasses time and space
and all the states dissolve into what is called the
Necessary Knowledge (cilm ul-wajib) of
Allah. This is also called Annihilation (fana').
- "Moving in
Allah is the stage in which the seeker moves from the
station of Names and Attributes to a state which neither
word nor sign can describe. This is the State of Existence
in Allah called Baqa.
- "Moving from
Allah is the stage in which the seeker returns from the
heavenly world to the world of cause and effect, descending
from the highest station of knowledge to the lowest. Here he
forgets Allah by Allah, and he knows Allah with Allah, and
he returns from Allah to Allah. This is called the State of
the Farthest and the Nearest.
- "Moving in
things is a movement within creation. This involves knowing
intimately all elements and states in this world after
having vanished in Annihilation. Here the seeker can achieve
the State of Guidance, which is the state of the prophets
and the people following the footsteps of the Prophet
It brings the Divine Knowledge into the world of creation in
order to establish Guidance.
"The entire process is like threading a needle. The thread seeks the
eye of the needle, passes through and then proceeds down to where it
began. There the two ends meet, form a knot and secure the entire
thread. They form a whole, thread, eye and needle, and any material
they catch is sewn into the fabric of the unity."
must be known to everyone that the Naqshbandi shaikhs chose to guide
their murids first through the movement from Allah, travelling from
the higher states to the lower. For this reason they maintain the
common veils over the spiritual vision of the murid, removing the
veil of ordinary consciousness only at the final step. All other
tariqats begin with the movement to Allah, moving from the lowest
states to the highest, and removing the common veils first."
is mentioned in the Hadith of the Prophet
'Scholars are the inheritors of the prophets.' The knowledge of
prophets is of two kinds: knowledge of laws and knowledge of
secrets. The scholar cannot be called an inheritor if he does not
inherit both knowledges. If he takes only one knowledge he is
incomplete. Thus the real inheritors are the ones who take the
knowledge of the laws and the knowledge of the secrets, and only the
saints have truly received and protected this inheritance."
behind him many more books. He died on the 17th of Safar 1034 H. at the
age of 63. He was buried in the village of Sirhind. He was a shaikh in
the four tariqats: Naqshbandi, Qadiri, Chisti and Suhrawardi. He
preferred the Naqshbandi, because he said, "It is the Mother of all
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He is The Rope of Allah (cUrwat-il-Wuthqa), the Pious
Guide who combined in himself the sharaca and Reality (haqiqat)
and he showed the difference between Ignorance and True Guidance. He was
born in the year 1007 H. He was educated by his father from the special
knowledge of saints. He sat on the Throne of Guidance in the Naqshbandi
Way after the passing of his Shaykh, at the age of 26 years. He became
famous everywhere. His name was known on every tongue, and kings
acknowledged his greatness in his time. People were flocking to him from
He was a saint from his childhood. He
never accepted to nurse in Ramadan. He spoke on the Knowledge of Oneness
at the age of three by saying, "I am the earth, I am the heavens, I am
God... I am this, I am that." He memorized the Qur'an in three months at
the age of six. He was trying through his heart to learn the true
knowledge, Sharacat and aqaqat and he reached the high state of these
knowledges. He was considered at the age of 17 years to be the greatest
scholar of his time. He was very truthful in all his Legal decisions (fatawa).
He accepted neither innovation nor licenses.
His father Sayiddina Ah mad al-Faruqi,
testified when he was young that a very great power would appear in him.
One time he said to his father Sayiddina Ahmad al-Faruqi, "I am seeing
myself as a life that is moving in every atom of the atoms of these
universes. And these universes are taking light from it as the earth
takes light from the sun." His father said, "O my son, that means you
are going to be the Qutb (Spiritual Pole) of your time. Remember that
He said to him one time, "you have been
molded from the residue of my residue, which was the the residue of the
He said, "I have poured into my son
Muhammad Masum everything that I have been given."
He said, "the Perfect Knower that is
honored to exist in the State of the Complete Existence will witness and
observe the Beauty of Allah in the mirror of this universe and he will
see himself in everything. This universe will be him and he will be this
universe. He will see himself moving in every individual of this
universe, encompassing the Whole in the Part and the Part in the Whole."
From His Miracles
One time one of his deputies, Khwaja
Muhammad as-Siddiq was travelling on top of a horse. His feet slipped
from the horse and he was dangling from one stirrup. The horse was
running so that he was expecting to die. He remembered at once to say,
'O my Shaykh support me.' As soon as he said 'O my Shaykh support me.'
he saw his Shaykh appear, take the reins of the horse and stop it.
One of his followers said, "I fell into
the sea and I didn't know how to swim. I called out his name and he came
and took me out."
One time he was sitting with his
followers in his khaniqah (spiritual center for retreat, prayers
and meditation) and they began to see water pouring from his hands and
his sleeves. They were surprised and they asked him, "What is this, O
our Shaykh." He said, "just now one of my murids was on a ship, and that
ship was in a storm and was sinking. He called me and I immediately
reached my hand and saved that person from drowning." We recorded the
time of that event and some months a merchant came among us. We asked
him about that event and he said, 'Yes, at that time my Shaykh came and
It happened at that time that one
magician used to build a fire, and he would enter it and it would not
burn him. There arose a great confusion aomng the people and it made a
great fitna (dissension). So the Shaykh made a very great fire in the
city and he told the magician, "Enter my fire!" and the magician was
afraid. Then he told one of his murids, "Enter my fire, and while you
are walking into it say LA ILAHA ILLALLAH." That murid entered and it
was cool and peace for him as it had been for Sayyidina Ibrahim [21:69]
when he was thrown in the fire. When the magician saw this, he
immediately converted and spoke the shahada: ash-hadu an la ilaha
illa-l-Lah, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan rasalu-l-Lah.
One Shaykh Abdur Rahman at-Tirmidhi
said, "I came with my brother to visit Shaykh Muhammad Masum (q). He
gave everyone a gift from his clothes except me. When we returned to our
country I was very sad, because I didn't receive anything from him.
After a while a rumor spread throughout the city that the Shaykh was
coming to visit the city. All the people went to welcome him and I went
with them. I saw the Shaykh coming on a white horse. He looked at me and
said, 'Abdur Rahman, don't be sad, I have tested you and I have saved
for you my special robe (jubba) which I inherited from my father,
Sayyidna Ahmad al-Faruqi (q). I took it from him and put it on me.
Immediately everything disappeared and my Shaykh appeared in front of
me: in every atom and every particle, he was appearing. I reached a
state of immense happiness and I entered the Divine Presence."
One day a blind man came to him and
asked him, "Please pray for me that Allah restore my vision to me." He
rubbed his saliva on his eyes and told him, 'Go to your house an don't
open your eyes until you get there.' He reached his home and opened his
eyes and he was seeing.
They told him "There is someone who is
cursing the caliphs of the Prophet
became upset, and in his hand was a knife with which he was cutting a
watermelon. As he cut the watermelon, he said, "As I cut this
watermelon, I am cutting the neck of that one who is cursing the caliphs
of the Prophet
Immediately that man died.
"When I was in Hajj, I saw the
Kacba hugging me and kissing me with great compassion
and emotion. Then Allah unveiled to me in a vision, lights and
blessings coming out of myself, and increasing and increasing;
until they filled up all the deserts, then all the mountains,
then the oceans; they then filled up all the universes and they
entered every atom of these universes. Then all these atoms were
drawn back to the love of the Essence of the Ka'aba. I saw many
spiritual beings, among them angels and saints, all of them
standing in my presence as if I was their sultan. Then I
received a written letter delivered to me by an angel, and
written on it was 'from the God of Heavens, Universes and all
Creation, I am accepting your pilgrimage.'
"Then I continued my travel to
visit the Madinat'il-Munawwarah, the City of the Prophet
I entered the city of the Prophet
and I went to visit him at his tomb. When I directed my face to
his face, I saw the Prophet
coming out of his grave, and he hugged me and kissed me. Then I
saw myself in a state, where my heart was as if combining with
his heart, my tongue with his tongue, my ears with his ears,
until I was not seeing myself, I was seeing the Prophet
and when I looked at the Prophet
I was seeing myself. That vision took me to the station of
Ascending to where the Prophet
had ascended in the Night of Ascension. I received there all the
knowledge that the Prophet
wanted me to receive.
"Then I moved toward the two
grand caliphs of the Prophet
As soon as I was in the presence of Sayyidina Abu Bakr
I saw on my shoulders a red robe. Then when I moved on to
I saw a yellow robe on my shoulders. When I was leaving I saw a
green robe dressed on my shoulders, which I knew was from the
Then I saw a vision that Allah unveiled from me all the veils
that were on my heart, and I saw that all that Allah had created
from the Station of the Throne (cArsh) to the
Station of the Earth was in need of the Beloved Muhammad
and he was the center of all light that moves in every atom."
"What the Prophet gave me at
that momemt, if I were to say it, they would cut my neck. Then I
found that every prayer on the Prophet
and every praise of Prophet
and every poetry that was written for the sake of the Prophet,
was as if it was for me. Then I saw all these universes, from
the Station of the Throne to the Station of the World, had been
enlightened and were shining with my light. When the time came
to go back to my country I was on my last visit to the Prophet
and I was crying in the farewell state and I saw the Prophet
come out of his maqam (station). He dressed me with dresses that
have never been seen before and he put on my head a crown. That
Crown came from the King of Kings, from the Divine Presence,
decorated with every kind of Jewels, whose description cannot be
described in this world. And I knew that Crown and those dresses
had been given to me from the Dresses of Allah Almighty and
Exalted, which He gave to His Prophet
in the Night of Ascension and which the Prophet
had kept for me and adorned me with on that night."
Shaykh Muhammad Masum was a Miracle of
Allah's Miracles and a Light that Allah showered down on this world in
order to guide by it humanity. It is said that he has given initiation
into this tariqat to more than 900,000 people and that he had 7,000
deputies, and each of them was a saint. That is because in one week's
association he could bring his follower to the state of Annihilation
and, in one month, to the State of Subsistence. It is also said that he
could bring his follower to the State of Existence in one single sitting
in his association.
He died on the 9th of Rabi'ul Awwal
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was a Reviver of this Order and a Reviver of the true path of the
Sunnah. He derived great spiritual benefit from his great ancestor,
Sayyidina `Umar al-Faruq
from his grandfather, Sayyidina Ahmad al-Faruqi (q). With the blessings
of the Prophet
able to spread this order far and wide.
He was born in 1055 H./1645 AD. He was
raised in the home of his father, Muhammad Ma'sum, and he was nursed
with the milk of the knowledge of his father, his grandfather and his
blessed ancestors. During his father's life he sat on the Throne of
Guidance and he followed the footsteps of his precedessors. His house
became a light for the scholars of the religion, who came like moths
from all around. As his subtle knowledge grew, his fame rose ever higher
in the heavens, reaching the orbits of the Knowers, until he was able to
decipher the Symbols of Hidden Knowledge and to open the Treasure of
Heavenly Affairs. He spread the external and internal knowledge, and he
joined together the Beginners and the Adepts, and he taught the
Knowledge of Taste (dhawq).
On the orders of his father he moved to
the city of Delhi to spread the knowledge of the sharica
and the light of the araqat. The Sultan himself, Muhammad Alamagir,
became his student, and consequently the people of the Court, the
Sultan's ministers, and all the princes became his followers. With the
support of the Sultan, it was not long before the entire kingdom
accepted him. He embodied the Sunnah of the Prophet
inspired love for the sharaca throughout the nation. By means of the
deep knowledge which filled his heart, he hoisted high the flag of Islam
and removed the traces of ignorance and tyranny from the kingdom.
Through the blessings of Shaykh
Sayfuddan's companionship, Allah made the Sultan succeed in all his
affairs and prevented harmful and unlawful conduct from occurring in the
realm. The Sultan banished tyrants and oppressors. He kept the company
of the Shaykh, following him as a student. Through the Shaykh's
encouragement, he was able to memorize the Holy Qur'an. He spent his
late night hours fulfilling the obligations of the araqat, reciting the
Dhikr, while his daylight hours he spent looking after the affairs of
The Shaykh endeavored to eliminate all
forms of misery and tyranny from the kingdom by means of the Sultan, and
achieved tremendous success, until the whole of India was living in
peace. He achieved such a position of reverence, that all sultans and
princes would stand in his presence out of respect for him.
One day a man was standing with the
other princes and Sultans in the presence of the Shaykh, and an
insinuating whisper came to his heart, saying, "That Shaykh is so
arrogant." The Shaykh looked at him and said, "You are right, because my
Pride is from Allah's Pride."
Once a man denied the truth of the
Shaykh's words. That night he saw a dream in which a group of men came
and attacked him. They beat him and beat him, asking "How dare you deny
the speech of the Shaykh when he is the Lover of God?" He awoke to find
himself in severe pain. He hastened to the presence of the Shaykh and
asked his forgiveness.
In his khaniqah (center for
retreat), every day around 6,000 seekers slept and ate from the food he
One day he heard from his neighbor's
house the sound of the ney (bamboo flute). He was so enchanted by
the sound of it that he fainted. When he came to he said, "Do you think
that I am empty of compassion and emotion? No, those who listen to the
ney and feel no compassion and emotion are empty. But when we hear
something beautiful, we are so touched that we are immediately
transported to the Divine Presence."
To the saints, God's call is heard
without any admixture of the "dust of sorrows" and that is why they
faint when they hear it.
One day a leper came and asked him for
his supplication that he be healed. He blew on him and immediately the
He died in 1095 H./1684 AD. and he was
buried in the city of Sirhind.
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was a descendant of the
His light was powered by the Heavenly Station. He poured into the
confused hearts of his time, peace and happiness, until he became the
Appearance of every Favor and a Means to Allah Almighty and Exalted, for
every person in his time. Through him God has renewed the Divine law,
sharica and the spiritual reality, haqiqa, like
the full moon on a dark night. How many a Sunnah that had been discarded
did he revive and how many innovations that had been instigated did he
He was born in 1075 H./1664 AD. He was
raised in a blessed house, quenching his thirst for external and
internal knowledge at the fountain of the Naqshbandi Order from his
early childhood. He received the blessings of his Shaykhs, and they were
proud of his progress. He continued to advance his state until, in the
country of India, he became a shining Lamp. Visitors came to him from
everywhere receiving from him both the blessings of his secrets and the
blessings of his ancestors. He sat on the Throne of the araqat
following his master, and he was like a beacon guiding by his light all
those seeking in the Way. He left behind him a celebrated name, and how
could it be otherwise when the Prophet Muhammad
his ancestor? He was a Branch of the Tree of Prophetic Knoweldge and a
Descendant of the Pure Family of the Prophet
. It is
no wonder that he became the Qiblah of the Saints and his
threshold became the goal of all people of God.
He was so pious that he spent most of
his time reading and studying the adab (ethics and character) of
the character and good conduct of saints. His strict adherence to the
Form and Intent of the Prophet
his actions is illustrated by the following incident. One day he entered
the bathroom with his right foot, which is contrary to the prescription
of the Prophet
resulted in his being constipated for three days, because he had strayed
from the propriety in the Sunnah in that single step. He asked Allah's
forgiveness, and Allah relieved him of his distress.
He began his life in a state of
Self-Effacement. He remained in that state for fifteen years. During
this period he was always in the state of Self-Effacement, and he was
never out of that state except during the ritual prayers. When he prayed
he would return to self-awareness and perform the prayers. He would then
return to that state. He was careful to eat only from earnings made by
the sweat of his brow. He ate only bread he baked himself, and he ate it
only in very small pieces. He spent all his time in meditation and
contemplation. When the bread was finished, he would return to prepare
more, then he would return to contemplation and meditation. From his
excessive contemplation, his back became bowed. He was in the service of
his Shaykh for many years. He also served Shaykh Muhammad Muhsin, son of
the great narrator of hadith of his time, Shaykh cAbdul Haqq,
one of the khalifs of Muhammad Macsum (q), until by means of
his service, he reached a high state of perfection.
He used to say, "For the past thirty
years the thought, 'How am I going to make a living' never came to my
heart. The subject of provision never came to my heart, but I ate when I
felt the need." He never ate from the food of a proud person. He said,
"The food of proud rich people contains darkness."
If he borrowed a book he would read it
in three days, because he said, "The reflection of the darkness and
ignorance of the owner of the book will be reflected on me." He was very
careful in such matters. His khalif, Sayyidina Habibullah (q), used to
cry when he remembered him, and he would say to his followers , "You did
not see that holy person. If you had been in his time it would have
renewed your faith in Allah's power that He had created such a person."
Sayyidina H abibullah also used to say,
"Shaykh Nur Muhammad al-Badawani's visions were extremely detailed and
incredibly precise. He used to see with his heart better than anyone can
see with his eyes. He told me one time when I was in his presence, 'O my
son I see in you the traces of adultery. What have you done today?' I
said, 'O my Shaykh when I was coming to you my eyes saw a woman on the
street.' He said, 'Next time take care to protect your eyes.'"
Shaykh Habibullah said, "One time as I
was on my way to the Shaykh, I saw an alcoholic on the street. When I
came to the Shaykh he told me, 'I am seeing in you the traces of
alcohol.' I realized from this that everything in this life is reflected
from one person to another, and the character of one person is reflected
on another. That is why we have to keep ourselves very clean at all
times, and always keep company with the people of Allah.
Shaykh Habibullah said, "One day a lady
came to him and said, 'O my Shaykh, a spiritual being (jinn)
kidnapped my daughter and I have tried by every means to get her back,
but it has been to no avail.' He meditated on that matter for about an
hour. Then he said, 'Your daughter will come tomorrow around the time of
afternoon prayers, so now go and rest.' The lady said, 'I was so eager
for that time to come, and for my daughter to appear, that I could
hardly rest. At the exact time the Shaykh had mentioned, I heard a knock
at the door, and in walked my daughter. I asked her what had happened.
She said, 'I had been kidnapped and taken to the desert by a jinn.
I was there in the desert and just now a Shaykh came and took me by the
hand and brought me here.'"
He died in the year 1135 H./1722-23 CE.
Shamsuddin Habib Allah
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was the Sun of Eternal Happiness. He was the Beloved of Allah,
Almighty and Exalted. He was the Spirit of the People of Truth, and he
was the Essence of the Spirit of the People of Taste. He was the Kacba
of the Godly and one of the Flags of the Noble Messenger. He elevated
the Knowledge of the Religion of Muhammad
revived the Way of the Naqshbandi Order.
He was born in 1113 H./1701 AD in
India. From his childhood the light of Guidance and the Traces of Piety
shone from his forehead. His features (mazhar) were molded with
the Manifestation of heavenly beauty (tajalli-l-jamal). He was
famous, like the Prophet Yusuf
his beauty, and everyone loved him because he represented beauty. That
is the attribute of God, about whom the Prophet
"God is beautiful and he loves beauty," and it is also the attribute of
the most beautiful in appearance and had the best voice of all
prophets." Because of this, Sheikh cAbdur-Ra'uf al-Munawi
said, "The Prophet
partner in his beauty."
When Shaykh Mazhar (q) was nine years
of age, he saw Sayyidina Ibrahim
gave him miraculous powers through spiritual transmission. At this age,
if anyone mentioned Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
his presence, he would see him appear with his physical eyes. He was
also able to see the Prophet
all the Companions of the Prophet
well as all the Shaykhs of the Naqshbandi Order, especially Sayyidina
His father raised him and educated him
in all branches of religious knowledge. At a young age his heart was
attracted to the spiritual light coming from his Shaykh, as-Sayyid Nur
Muhammad. His Shaykh opened the eyes of his heart and fed him from the
nectar of the flower of the Hidden Knowledge. The Shaykh took him out of
the state of self-awareness and lifted him up to the Highest Stations,
which produced in him great astonishment and caused him to faint. When
he awoke, he accompanied Shaykh Nur Muh ammad in further ascension. The
Shaykh allowed him to observe the Mysteries of the Hidden World and gave
him gifts from his miraculous Powers and Stations.
One look of his Shaykh opened in him
the Nine Points, the loci of the Naqshbandi Secrets. From the knowledge
of the nine points, he delved into the secrets contained in the five of
the more powerful points, until his Shaykh authorized him to "activate"
the Nine Points at any time and to use them. Then he brought him back
down to be in his presence and only in his presence. He brought him up
and down, from one stage to another, and enveloped him with his light
and protected him with his gaze, until he achieved the ultimate
perfection and awakened himself from Ignorance.
He stood fast in serving his Shaykh
with complete truthfulness. He continued to progress by entering
seclusions in the desert and in the jungle on the orders of his Shaykh.
In these seclusions, his only food was grass and the leaves of trees.
During his period of asceticism in the desert and jungle, he wore only
what would cover his nakedness. One day, after many of these seclusions,
he looked in the mirror and didn't see himself; he saw his Shaykh.
At this stage the Shaykh authorized him
to guide Allah's servants to their destinies and to the Straight Path,
and he put him on the Throne of Succession, and by him the Sun of
Guidance ascended the Tower of Happiness.
When his teacher passed away, he
continued to visit his grave and for two years he received whatever
lights and knowledge his master was able to transmit to him from his
grave. Then he was ordered through his spiritual connection to his
Shaykh to connect himself with a living master.
He reached the Door of the perfect
Saints of his time, Shaykh Muhammad Afzal, Shaykh Safi Sacdullah,
and Shaykh Muhammad cabid.
He attached himself to Shaykh Shah Kalshan and to another Shaykh by the
name of Muhammad az-Zubair. He used to attend the session of Shaykh
Muhammad Afzal, one of the khalifs of the son of Muhammad Macsum
(q). He visited and studied with Shaykh cAbdul Ahad and
received from him knowledge of the Prophetic hadith. During this class,
whenever the Shaykh would mention a hadith, he would disappear through
Self-Effacement, and a vision would come to him in which he would find
himself sitting with the Prophet
hearing the hadith directly from the Prophet
would correct any mistakes that might occur in the Shaykh's narration of
the hadith, and was acknowledged as a genius in the science of hadith.
He kept the company of these Shaykhs
for twenty years. He progressed further and further in the States of
Perfection, until he became an Ocean of Knowledge. He rose in the
Firmament of the Qutbs until he became the Qu b of his time, shining
like the sun at high noon. Shaykh Muhammad Afzal said, "Shaykh
Mazhar Habibullah was given the state of Qutb and he is the central
pivot of this tariqat in this time."
His spiritual perfection attracted
people from all reaches of the Subcontinent. In his presence, each
seeker would find what he needed, until through his blessing the Indian
Subcontinent became like a Kacba encircled by flocks of
In his noble person were combined the
power of four tariqats. He was a master of the Naqshbandi, Qadiri,
Suhrawardi and Chishti Orders. He used to say, "I received the secrets
and knowledge of these orders from my Shaykh, Sayyid Nur Muhammad
Badawani, until I attained a very distinguished power in these Orders.
He lifted me from the Ibrahamic Stage to the Muhammadan
Stage, which caused me to see the Prophet
sitting in my place, while I was sitting in his. Then I disappeared and
I saw him sitting in the two places. Then I saw him disappearing and I
saw myself sitting in both places."
Following are some sayings of Shaykh
"Once I was sitting in the
presence of Shaykh Muhammad cAbid and the Shaykh
said, "The two suns at the two ends met, and if their lights
were combined and spread throughout this universe, they would
have burned everything."
"Shaykh Muhammad Afzal was much
older than I but he used to stand up for me when I entered, and
he used to say to me, 'I am standing in deference to the high
lineage that you possess.'"
"This whole world and the
entire universe is in my hand, and I can see everything in them,
just as clearly as I can see my hand."
He had inummerable miraculous
experiences and numberless visions about the Heavenly world as well as
the lower world.
Once he traveled with some of his
followers without any food or provision. They walked and whenever they
got tired they sat. The Shaykh would call them and say, "This food is
for you," and tables of food would appear in front of them.
One day during the trip there was a
terrible storm and the wind was blowing everything in its path. It was
freezing and everyone was shivering because of the cold. Their situation
worsened until it appeared that they were going to die in that frozen
desert. Then Shaykh Mazhar raised his hands and said, "O Allah make it
surround us but not be upon us." Immediately the clouds lifted from
around them, and though the freezing rain continued to fall one mile
away, around them the temperature rose to a comfortable level.
He said, "One time I visited the grave
of Shaykh Muhammad Hafiz Muhsin. I disappeared from myself and in a
vision I saw his body. It had suffered no decomposition, and his shroud
was still perfectly clean except for a patch of dirt on one part by his
feet. Through my spiritual power, I asked him about that. He said, 'O my
son I will tell you a story. One day I took a stone from the garden of
my neighbor and put it in a hole in my garden, and I said to myself, 'in
the morning I will return it to him,' but I forgot. As a result of that
action, the dirt has appeared on my shroud. That one action has tainted
He said, "As long as you are lifted
upward in piety you will be lifted up in sainthood."
One day he became angry at a tyrant and
he said, "A vision came to me in which I saw that all Shaykhs, from Abu
the Shaykhs of today, were unhappy with that tyrant." The next day the
A man came to him and said, "O my
master, my brother has been jailed in another village. Please pray to
Allah to save him." He said, "O my son, your brother has not been
jailed, but he has done something wrong and tomorrow you will receive a
letter from him." It turned out to be just as he described.
He informed his followers of great
tidings and some jealous people refused to accept what he said. He said,
"If you don't believe me let us bring a judge. We will each tell him our
point of view and let him judge between us." They said "We don't accept
any judge except the Prophet
on Judgment Day we will ask for his judgement in this matter." Then he
said, "There is no need to wait until the Judgment Day. We will ask the
to give his Judgment now." He entered a deep state of contemplation in
his heart and was told to read the Fatiha. This he did, and immediately
appeared to everyone and said, "Al-Mazhar Habibullah is right and all
of you are wrong."
He said, "Existence is an Attribute of
Allah alone. This world is a mere shadow of realities existing in the
Divine Presence. The reality of all possible creations (haqa'iq
al-mumkinat) results from the action of the Divine Attributes and
Qualities on the Void (cadm). The Real
Existence of all that manifests in physical creation is confirmed as a
light in the Divine Presence.
"Everything that appears in the
physical creation is a mere shadow of the luminous reality projected by
the Divine Qualities upon the void of non-existence. The World of the
Divine Attributes (sifat) is the Origin of the Well-springs of
the Created Universes (mabadi' tacayyunat
al-aclam). Because all physical creation
arises from a combination of Allah's Divine Qualities and the Void,
creation thus partakes of two origins of opposite nature. From the
nature of the void of non-existence and nothingness arises the dense
qualities of physical substance that in the sphere of human action
produce darkness, ignorance and evil. From the Divine Attributes comes
Light, Knowledge and Good. Thus the Sufi, when he looks at himself sees
all that is good in him as a light from the Divine that is reflected on
him, but that is not of him. A simile for it would be a borrowed suit of
fine clothes with which one is beautifully dressed but that does not
truly belong to him and for which he deserves no credit. Conversely, he
sees himself as base substance, full of darkness and ignorance, with a
nature worse than that of an animal. With this dual perception he
loosens his attachment to the attractions of the self and effaces
himself, and turns in repentance (tawba) towards the Divine
Source of all Good. With this turning, Allah fills his heart with love
and yearning for the Divine Presence. As Allah said in a Holy Hadith,
"If My servant approaches Me by one hand's length I will approach him by
one arm's length; and if he comes to Me walking I will come to him
Shortly before his death Shaykh Mazhar
(q) was in a state of great emotion and intense love of God. He
experienced a great unhappiness at having spent so long in this
transient world. He spent his last days in intense contemplation and,
when asked, he would always say that his state was that of Annihilation
and Existence in Allah Sublime and Exalted. He increased his dhikr in
his final days, and as a result of the intense light of attraction
generated thereby, thousands and thousand of seekers entered into the
tariqat. Each new day would bring three thousand new people to his door,
and he would not let one of them go without meeting him. Finally, he
became so exhausted that he scheduled only two times a day to meet with
One day, one of his followers, Shaykh
Mullah Nasim, asked permission to travel and visit his parents in his
homeland. He said, "My son, if you want to go you may, but I may not be
here when you return." This reply went from one mouth to another,
shaking the hearts of people, as it indicated that his era was ending.
With tearful eyes, and broken hearts, people all around the Punjab began
wailing and crying. His house was full and no one knew what was going to
happen when he was gone. Then he took a paper and wrote to one of his
successors, Mullah Abdur-Razzaq, "O my son, I am now over eighty and my
life is coming to its close. Remember me in your prayers." He sent him
that letter and he sent many others the same letter.
Thanking Allah for His Favours he said,
"There is nothing left in my heart of anything that I have wished to
achieve or to reach that remains to be accomplished. There is nothing
for which I have asked Allah that I did not receive. My only remaining
desire is to leave this world and be in His Presence continuously. Allah
gave me everything, except permission to go to Him. I am asking Allah to
take me to Him today, before tomorrow. But I don't want to go to Him as
an ordinary person. I want to go to him, as Allah described in the Holy
Qur'an, as a martyr who is always alive. So, O Allah, make me a martyr
in this world and take me to you as a martyr. This kind of death will
bring happiness to my heart and will cause me to be in the presence of
and of Musa
with all your 124,000 prophets; and to be with all the Companions of the
Prophet, and to be with al-Junayd (q) and the master of this Order, Shah
Naqshband (q), and with all the masters of the Tariqat. O Allah,
I want to combine the witnessing of physical martyrdom with spiritual
death in the State of Witnessing, in the State of Annihilation."
It was Wednesday evening, the seventh
of Muharram, of the year 1195 H/1780 CE. His servant came to him and
said, "There are three men at your door. They want to visit you." He
said, "Let them enter." When they entered, he came out of his bedroom
and greeted them. One of them said to him, "Are you Mirza Jan Janan Habibullah?"
He answered, "Yes." The two said to the third, "Yes, he is the one." One
of the men took a knife from his pocket and stabbed him in the back,
piercing his kidney. Because of his age, he was unable to withstand the
severity of the blow and he fell to the ground. When it was time for the
Fajr prayer, the King sent him a doctor. He sent back the doctor and
said, "I don't need him. As for the men who stabbed me, I forgive them,
because I am glad to die as a martyr and they came as an answer to my
He passed from this life on Friday.
When the day reached its middle, he read the Quranic chapters Fatiha
and Ya Sin until cAsr time. He asked his followers,
how many hours were left until sunset. They told him, "Four hours." He
said, "It is still long until the meeting with my Lord." He said, "I
have missed ten prayers in my life, all in these past two days, because
my body is full of blood and I have been unable to raise my head." They
asked him, "If a sick person is in such a weak condition, is he obliged
to pray with movements of his eyes and his forehead or to postpone his
prayer?" He answered, "Both ways are correct." He waited with patience
for the sunset, and he died. It was the night of cAshura,
1195 H./1781 AD.
Allah ad-Dahlawi (Shah Ghulam Ali)
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
He was the Summit of Knowers and the King of the Perfect Guides, the
Revealer of the Knowledge of the Religion and the Revealer of the Secret
of Certainty; the Verifier of the State of Perfection, Shaykh of all
Shaykhs of the Indian Subcontinent, the Inheritor of the Knowledge and
Secrets of the Naqshbandi Order. He is known as the Unique Diver and
Swimmer in the Ocean of Oneness; the traveler in the Desert of the
Ascetic State; the Qutb of all orders and the Red Sulfur ("Rarest of the
Rare") of All Truth.
He perfected himself and adorned
himself with the best ethics and manners. He lifted himself up to the
High Heavens of Spiritual Knowledge and adorned himself with its stars.
He became the foremost in every science. He grew to be a full moon and
he saw his light coming from the Sun of his teacher, until his teacher
accepted to train him formally and to care for him.
The Shaykh supported him by means of
his spiritual power and raised him to the highest blessing he had
attained, until he attained the state of the Certainty of Truth and the
state of the Furthermost Lote Tree. Then he sent him back to this world,
until he became as we said before, the guide for every human being. He
was given permission to give initiation in the Naqshbandi Order. He
supported the sharaca, upheld the sunnah, and revived the
Truth of five tariqats: Qadiri, Suhrawardi, Kubrawi, Chishti and
Naqshbandi. He passed the secrets of and authority of all five Tariqats
to his successor, and through him to all subsequent Shaykhs of the
Golden Chain. He raised all his murids to the exalted stations of the
abdal (Substitute-Saints) and awtad (Pillar-Saints).
He was born in 1158 H./1745 AD. in the
village of Bitala in the Punjab. He was a descendant of the Family of
father was a great scholar and ascetic trained in the Qadiri Taraqat by
Shaykh Nasir ad-Din al-Qadiri, who had been trained by Khidr
Before he was born, his father saw in a dream Sayyidina cAli,
the fourth khalif, telling him, "Call him by my name." His mother saw in
a dream a pious man telling her, "You are going to have a boy. Call him
cAbdul Qadir." Then his father and his mother saw the same
dream in which the Prophet
them, "Call him cAbdullah." Because the Prophet's order took
precedence over any other suggestion, he was named cAbdullah
Shah Ghulam cAli.
He memorized the Qur'an in one month
due to his genius. He educated himself in external and spiritual
knowledge, until he became the highest of the scholars. As a youth he
went many times to the desert, making dhikr there for months at a time,
subsisting on whatever food he could find. One time he stayed 40 days
without sleeping and without eating a morsel of food. His dhikr didn't
stop. His father's Shaykh ordered his father to bring his son to him to
initiate him in the Qadiri Tariqat. The same night that he reached the
Shaykh's house the Shaykh died. His father told him, "We would have
gladly given you the Qadiri Tariqat, but now you are free to find
whatever Way suits you."
He kept company with the Shaykhs of the
Chishti Tariqat in Delhi, among them Shaykh Dia'ullah, Shaykh cAbdul
cAddad, khalif of Shaykh Muhammad Zubair, Shaykh Mirdad,
Mawlana Fakhruddin, and many others, until he reached the age of
twenty-two. He came by himself to the khaniqah of Shaykh Jan
Janan Habibullah (q). He asked his permission to enter the
Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi Order. Shaykh Habibullah said to him, "It is
better for you to be with those orders that have taste and compassion,
for in our Tariqat there is nothing except to lick the stone without any
salt." He said, "That is my highest goal." Shaykh ababullah accepted
him and said, "May Allah bless you. Stay here."
He said, "After I received the
knowledge of the hadith and memorized the Qur'an and learned its
interpretation, I stood in the presence of my Shaykh. He gave me
initiation into the Qadiri Tariqat with his holy hand. He also gave me
initiation into the Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi Tariqat. I was in the presence
of the circles of Dhikr and in his company for 15 years. Then he gave me
the authorization to guide and train murids.
"I was hesitant at first, because I was
afraid that Sayyidina cAbdul Qadir Jilani (q) would not give
me permission to teach in the Naqshbandi Order. I saw him in a vision
one day during my period of hesitation, sitting on a throne. Shah
Naqshband (q) entered. Immediately he stood up and he put Shah Naqshband
on the throne and he remained standing in his presence. It came to my
heart that this was a sign of respect for Shah Naqshband. He said to me,
'Go to Shah Naqshband. The goal is Allah. Whatever Path you choose you
can reach Him.'"
He said, "I was living on income from a
piece of property that I owned. I gave it away for Allah's sake. After
that I faced many difficulties because I had no income. I was left with
only an old mat to sleep on in cold weather and a small old pillow on
which I rested my head. I became very weak. I locked myself in my room
and said to myself, 'O my Self, this is your grave. I am not going to
open that door for you. Whatever Allah provides for you, you may take.
You are going to live here without food and without anything but that
mat and that pillow. Your food is going to be water. O my spirit, your
food is going to be Dhikrullah.' I stayed in that state 40 days, growing
very weak, when Allah sent someone knocking at my door. He served me
with food and provided me with clothes for 50 years."
He said, "When I locked the door of my
room and I said what I said, Allah's Care reached me. One day a person
came to me and said, 'Open the door.' I said, 'I don't want to open it.'
He said, 'Don't you need me?' I said, 'No, I need Allah, Almighty and
Exalted.' At that momment I experienced a vision in which I was raised
up to Allah's Presence and it was as if I spent one thousand years in
His presence. Then I returned and He told me, 'Open that door.' After
that I never experienced any difficutly."
People came to him from everywhere. His
fame reached as far as Byzantium, Iraq, Khorasan, Transoxiana, and
Syria. His fame reached North Africa. He sent his khalifs and deputies
everywhere on the order of Sayyidina Muhammad
them was Sayyidina Khalid Baghdadi (q). He reached people through dreams
and guided people in far countries. They travelled to him from great
distances, telling him, "You called me to you through my dreams."
His khaniqah used to feed 2,000 persons
every day and it was always full. He never kept any food for the next
day. Out of modesty he never slept extending his feet, because he was
afraid of extending his feet towards the Prophet
saints or the Divine Presence. He never looked in a mirror. If a dog
entered his house to eat he would say, "O Allah, who am I to be a means
between You and Your Lover? And who am I to feed them when You are
feeding me and you are feeding them? O Allah, I am asking for the sake
of your creation, this one, and everyone who comes asking me for mercy,
send me Mercy for their sake and bring me nearer to You and help me to
hold fast to the Sunnah of the Prophet
accept what you have prescibed and to leave what you have prohibited."
He said, "One time Ismacil
al-Madani came to visit me, by the order of the Prophet
his country, the Hijaz, he had travelled thousands of miles. He had
brought with him some of the relics of the Prophet
gave them to me as a gift. I put them in the Great Mosque in Delhi."
He said, "One time there came to me the
King of Nabdilkahand, and he was wearing the clothes of the unbelievers.
When I saw him I was angry with him and said to him, "You cannot sit in
my presence in such clothes." The king said, "If you are condemning me
so much I will not come to your association." The Shaykh said, "That is
better." He stood up angrily to go. When he reached the door, something
happened to him, no one knew what. He threw off the clothes of the
unbelievers and came running back and kissed the hand of the Shaykh and
took initiation (baycah) from him and became one of
his loyal followers. They asked him later what happened. He said, "When
I was going out, I saw the Shaykh coming in through the door with the
while he was inside! That is what made me run back to him."
He slept very little. When he awoke for
Tahajjud (late-night) prayers he would awaken everyone to sit
with him for contemplation and reading the Qur'an. Every day it was his
practice to read one third of the Qur'an and then pray Fajr prayer with
the group. Then he would sit in the circle of Dhikr and Contemplation
until sunrise. He would pray Ishraq and then he would give a talk. He
would sit to recite hadith and read commentaries on the Qur'an. He would
pray Duha (Late Morning Prayer) and then sit to eat with all his
followers. He ate little and after he ate he would read religious and
spiritual books and write some letters. After Dhuhr (Noon Prayer)
he would sit and recite tafsir and hadith until cAsr
time. After cAsr he would speak about Sufism and its
distinguished lunminaries, such as al-Qushayri, or Ibn 'Arabi or Shah
Naqshband (q). Then he would sit in a circle of Dhikr until Maghrib.
After Maghrib he would sit in the private circle of his followers. Then
he would eat dinner and pray cIsha. After cIsha
he would spend the night in dhikr and contemplation. He would sleep for
only one or two hours, then he would wake for Tahajjud.
His mosque was too small for his
followers, as it would only hold 2,000 people. So he used to recite
dhikr for his followers by turns, each time filling the mosque.
Whoever gave him a donation he would
first pay the zakat from it, according to the school of Imam
Abu Hanifa, without waiting for the passage of a year, because to give
the zakat immediately is better than to give voluntary charity.
He would use what remained for preparing food and sweets for the poor
and for the needs of his zawiya and for his own needs.
Some people would steal from that money
and he would not reprimand them, but would leave them for Allah. One day
a man stole a book from him and then returned to sell it back. He
praised him and gave him the money. One of his followers said, "O my
master this is from your own library and it has your signature in it."
He said, "Don't backbite, that is between him and Allah."
He always sat on his knees, never
cross-legged or with legs extended, but keeping respect for the Prophet
died in this posture. He concealed what he gave in charity. He never
showed how much he gave nor to whom. He wore old clothes. If he was
given new clothes, he would sell them and buy many old clothes with its
price. He said, "Better for many to have some clothes than for one to
have fine clothes."
His association was like the
association of Sufyan ath-Thawri, a companion of the Prophet
was a loud voice raised, nor did backbiting occur, nor were worldly
affairs discussed. Nothing was heard in it except spirituality and
One day, the Shaykh was fasting and one
of his followers spoke harshly about the king of India. He told him,
"What a pity for me, I lost my fast." They told him, "O our master, you
didn't do anything, the one who spoke is responsible." He said, "No, the
speaker and the listener partake of that sin equally."
He loved the Prophet
much that whenever he heard his holy name he would shake and faint. He
was meticulous in following the Prophet
actions and in keeping his Sunnah.
The Words of His Perfection and the
Perfection of His Words
"The Naqshbandi Order is built
on four principles: keeping the Presence of Allah; divine
inspirations; attraction; and disregarding whispers."
"Whoever asks for Taste and
Yearning is not really asking for the Reality of the Divine
"The Seeker must be fully aware
of how he passes every single moment. He must know how he
prayed; he must know how he read the Qur'an; he must know how he
read the Hadith; he must know how he read the Dhikr; he must
know how much darkness he received from doubtful food."
"Food is of two kinds; one is
to satisfy the self and the second is to nourish the self. The
first kind is not acceptable, but the other is accepted because
it provides the strength needed to fulfill your obligations and
to keep the Sunnah of the Prophet
"Just as asking for alal
(permitted things) is an obligation on every believer, so too is
the rejecting of halal an obligation on every Knower:
the Knower, the Sufi, is the one who rejects the dunya
(Lower World) and the akhira (Next World), even though
they are alal. He accepts nothing but Allah, Almighty and
"It must be understood by
everyone that the Prophet
is the Summation of all Perfections. The appearance of his
perfection in every different century and time has been
according to the preparedness and state of that century and that
time. That is why the appearance of his perfection in his
lifetime and the time of his Companions was in the form of Jihad
and struggle and dacwah (Calling
to Religion). His appearance to the saints in later centuries
through his holy Presence was in the form of Self-Effacement,
Anniliation, Taste, Compassion, Emotion, Secrets of Oneness and
all other spiritual states. That is what has appeared to the
hearts and on the tongues of saints."
"For us the night of hunger is
the night of Ascension. The night of hunger is the night of
desire for Allah."
(Initiation) is of three categories: the first is for the
intercession of the Shaykhs; the second is to repent from sins;
the third is to adhere to, to connect with and receive the
"All the perfections of a human
being except the Prophetic appeared in Sayyidina Ahmad al-Faruqi
(q), and the Prophetic Perfection appeared in Sayyidina Shah
"Men are of four categories:
those who are barely human because all they ask for is the
dunya; those who ask for the Hereafter; mature humans who
ask for the Hereafter and for Allah; special humans who ask only
"The souls of human beings will
be taken by the Angel of Death, but the souls of the Elect
cannot be approached by any angel; Allah Himself takes them with
His Holy Hand."
"The Divine Mind is the mind
which knows its way to its goal without a mediator, and the
Earthly Mind is the mind which needs to see its way by means of
a guide and a saint."
"Whoever wants to serve, he
must serve his Shaykh."
From His Visions
He said concerning his visions,
"One time I had a vision in
which I saw al-Mir Ruhullah, one of the followers of Jan Janan Habibullah
(q), saying to me, 'The Prophet
is waiting for you.' I moved in that vision to the place where
was waiting. He hugged me and by that hug I changed to be like
him. Then I changed to be like the picture of my Shaykh, Jan
Janan Habibullah. Then I changed to be like Amar Kulal (q). I
then changed to be like Shah Naqshband (q), and then I changed
to be like cAbdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani (q). Then I
changed to be like Sayyidina Abu Bakr as-Siddiq
the Friend of the Prophet
"One time I had a vision near
to the time of cIsha prayer in which I saw the
coming to me and telling me, 'I have advice for you and your
followers; never sleep before cIsha.'"
"One time I had a vision that I
was asking the Prophet
'You said, 'Whoever sees Me sees the Truth.'' He said, 'Yes, and
he will see Allah, Almighty and Glorious.'"
"One time I had a vision in
which I saw the Prophet
coming to me and he was saying to me, 'Never leave off reading
Qur'an and doing dhikr, you and your followers, and always send
its reward as a gift to me; by this you will derive great
"One time I had a vision and I
said to the Prophet
'I am very afraid of hellfire.' He said to me, 'Whoever loves us
never enters the fire.'"
"One time I had a vision and I
saw Allah, Almighty and Exalted, speaking to me. He said to me,
'Your face is the face of the Sultan of Saints, and you are that
"I saw in a vision Shah
Naqshband (q) come to me, hug me and enter my clothes. We were
one. I asked him, 'Who are you?' He answered, 'Shah Baha'uddin
Naqshband, and you are me and I am you.'"
One time he was by the sea and the
waves were raging and he saw a ship sailing. It was in danger of
foundering, but as soon as he looked at it, the ship stopped tossing and
the sea became calm.
One time one of his followers, Shaykh
Ahmad Yar, was travelling for business in a caravan. The caravan stopped
to rest. He slept and saw his Shaykh in a dream saying, "Go immediately
away from here, there are robbers who are about to attack." He awoke and
told the people but they refused to believe him. He left by himself and
the robbers came and killed everyone.
One day Shaykh Zul Shah set out to
visit Shaykh cAbdullah from very far away. He got lost on the
way. A man came to him and pointed him in the right direction. He asked
the man who he was. He answered, "I am the one you are going to visit."
Shaykh Ahmad Yar said, "Once, Shaykh
cAbdullah went to give his condolences to a pious lady whose
daughter had died. She and her husband were serving him. He told the
woman and her husband, 'Allah is going to give you a son in the place of
your daughter.' She said, 'I am sixty years and I have passed
childbearing age, and my husband is 80 years old. How is it possible
that we could have a child?' He said, 'Don't ask how Allah can do that!
It is His blessings to you and my blessings to you.' Then he went out
and made ablution and came to the mosque and prayed two rakcats.
Then he raised his hands in duca (invocation) and
said, 'O Allah grant them the child as you promised me.' Then he turned
to me and said, 'That du'a has been accepted.' Later, the woman gave
birth to a son."
One day a woman who was a relative of
Mir Akbar cAli and a follower of the Shaykh became ill. Mir
Akbar cAli came to the Shaykh and asked him to pray to Allah
to take the sickness away, but the Shaykh refused to make that
invocation.. Mir Akbar cAli insisted. The Shaykh said, "It is
impossible, because that lady is going to die in fifteen days." Mir
cAli went back and two weeks later the woman died.
One time in the region around Delhi
there was a drought, and no crops were able to grow. The people were
desperate. On one particularly hot day Shaykh cAbdullah went
out to the yard of the mosque and, with the sun beating down, said, 'O
Allah I will not move from here until You shower us with rain.' He
hadn't finished his invocation before the sky filled with clouds and it
began to rain. That rain continued for 40 days.
He said, "I would like to die like my
Shaykh, Mirza Jan Janan Habibullah, as a martyr. But I remember that
after he passed the people suffered a drought for three years and there
was much killing and troubles because Allah was angry with those who had
killed him. Therefore, O Allah, I do not ask to die that way, though I
would like it, but I ask you to take me to You."
He passed away on the 12th of Safar in
the year 1241 H./1825 CE. He died with the book of Narrations of the
Jami` at-Tirmidhi, in his hands. He was buried next to his
Shaykh in Jan Janan Habibullah's khaniqah in Delhi.
He left many books, including
Maqamat an-Naqshbandiyya, Risalat al-Ishtighal bi Ismi-l-Jalal, Manahij
at-Tahqiq, and Minatu-r-Rahman.
Abu Saeed Ahmad
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
Hadrat Abu Syeed Zaki. Family origin from Hadrat Khuwaja Massom ra. Born
in town called Rampure on 1st Zulkaedah 1192. His bait with
Hadrat Shah Gulam Ali. Hadrat Gulam Ali appointed him as his assistant.
Hadrat Abu Syeed Zaki also write a risala and hidayatul talibin. 10
years later he went for haj. He died on 1250 during Aidilfitri. His body
was kept beside his murshid in Delhi, India.
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
Hadrat Shah Ahmad Syeed is son of Hadrat
Abu Syeed Zaki. He also a khalifah. During Brirish governance in India,
the British soldier wanted to arrest him because his activities to gain
independence from British Empire to built an Islamic country. When the
government suspected him, his gave his place to Hadrat Dost Mohammad
Qandhari. He went to Mecca and lived there. In month of Safar, 1270 he
went to Madinah and wrote a letter to Hadrat Dost Mohammad Qandhari that
says he lived in Madinah and have his dakwah there. He died on 2nd
of Rabiul Awal. His body was kept beside Hadrat Usman Bin Affan.
Haji Dost Muhammad Qandhari
May Allah Sanctify His Soul
Hadrat Muhammad Qandhari ra born in 1216.
He like to be with sufi allah even though he is busy with his education.
One day his collapsed at Qabul for three months. He went to Baghdad from
Peshawar on his foot looking for murshid kamil. After that he went to
Qalat Baluchistan, but when he arrived at Bombay, he saw Hadrat Abu
Sayeed Mohammad and bait with him. During that time Hadrat Abu Sayeed
Mohammad was very old and weak and ask him to completed his education
with his son Hadrat Shah Ahmad Syedd. There, he furnished khilafat in
tariqat naqshbandia qadria chishtia. his murshid send him in
Khurasan for tabligh and died on Saturday night on 22nd of Shawal 1284.
His body was kept in Musa Zai Sharif Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan.
Hadhrat Muhammad Uthmaan Daamaani
Allah Sanctify His Soul
Hadrat Muhammad Usman Damani born in
1244 at Loni Distric Kalachi Dera Ismail Khan. Family origin from Acahk
Zai Dan Ibrahim Khayl. When his finished his study he when to Hadrat
Maulna Nizamudin. On 8th of Jamadil Akhir 1266 his bait with
Hadrat Dost Mohammad Qandhari . He walked 40km everyday from his house to his
murshid. On 27th of Ramadan he was appointed as Khalifah and
Hadrat Dost Mohammad Qandhari assistant. In year 1287 he when to Madinah. He
did not eat do to respect of Rasulullah. Always do the solat tahajud and
died on 22nd of Syaban 1314.
Allah Sanctify His Soul
Hadrat Sirajudin ra born on 15th
of Muharam at Musa Zai. Have a skillful in fiqa tafsir and others.on
7thof Rabiul Awal 1314 appointed as Khalifah and assistant in Tarikat
Naqshbandia Chistia Qadria Suharwardia Qalndaria Shitarayah Medaria
Kaburia. Many people convert to islam and be a good muslim. Died on 26th
of Rabiul Awal 1333.
Khwajah Ghareeb Nawaz Hadhrat Fazal Ali Shah Qureshi
Allah Sanctify His Soul
ancestors of Hadhrat Ghareeb Nawaz Khwaja Fazal Ali Qurayshi rahmatullah
alayhi migrated with the Abbasi Yalghar from Arabia to Sindh and then
from there they moved on to settle in the district of Mianwali. Their
settlement became famous by the name of Da'ood Kheyl. Due to being of
Abbasi and of Hashimi descent the Shaykh's family was called 'Qurayshi'
by the public. The Shaykh was born at Da'ood Kheyl in the year 1270
spent the early years of his life in Kala Baagh were he received
education up to Sharh Waqaya and Sharh Jaami. Among his teachers were
Hadhrat Maulana Qamar-ud-din Sahib and Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib
Saharanpuri from whom he learnt the Books and studied Hadeeth.
At an early
stage the Shaykh had a fond desire to raise a parrot and train it to say
good things. But a voice from the unseen said to him "Teaching a parrot
will not be of as much benefit as that of teaching the creation of Allah
(meaning Man). The heart is a parrot from Allah that should be brought
towards His dhikr."
desire to find a Kaamil Shaykh was born in his heart. The Shaykh was
still in his youth when he came into the service and company of Hadhrat
Khwaja Muhammad Uthman Damaani rahmatullah alayhi. Hadhrat Uthmaan
Damaani rahmatullah alayhi sent the Shaykh to his first Khaleefah,
Hadhrat Sayyid La'al Shah Sahib rahmatullah alayhi at whose hand the
Shaykh took Bay'ah for the first time.
The path of
Sulook was still incomplete for the Shaykh when Hadhrat La'al Shah Sahib
rahmatullah alayhi passed away.
then went into the presence and service of Hadhrat Khwaja Siraaj-ud-din
rahmatullah alayhi in Moosa Zai Shareef. Hadhrat Siraj-ud-din
rahmatullah alayhi taught the Shaykh dhikr from the beginning and took
him through all the Asbaaq (stages).
Khwaja Siraajuddin went to Delhi for medical treatment, he sent for the
Shaykh by means of a letter. It was at that time that the Shaykh was
given Khilafat, near the area of Chitley, a place blessed with the
shrines of Hadhrat Mirza Mazhar Jaane Jaanan rahmatullah alayhi ,
Hadhrat Shah Ghulam Ali rahmatullah alayhi and Hadhrat Shah Abu Sa'eed
rahmatullah alayhi .
returning from this blessed journey the Shaykh returned to live in
Miskeenpur Shareef. The creation of Allah began entering the Silsilah in
large numbers. The Shaykh's Mureeds developed great love and enthusiasm.
The ignorant began to spread rumours that the tapping of the tasbeeh by
the Shaykh was some form of magic. But gradually those same people who
had ill thoughts began taking Bay'ah at the Shaykh's hand and soon the
whole environment was alight with the Haq of Allah's dhikr. It was not
long before the effects of all this spread across India and then rapidly
to all corners of the Islamic world.
ploughing the fields, Hadhrat Shaykh would do the dhikr of Ism-e-Zaat
(the name 'Allah') and do so with a tasbeeh in his hands. Often the
number of this dhikr would reach eighty thousand.
travel 250 miles by foot, to sit in the service of his Shaykh and on
many occasions he would travel contentedly for a month or so on the
provision of only 2 to 4 kilograms of food. On one occasion he had only
a few coins on his person, on this journey the Shaykh survived on a
supply of carrots and chickpeas.
hardship never ever limited the delight, happiness and joy that he felt
upon seeing his Shaykh when he arrived at his destination.
Shaykh tapped the beads on his tasbeeh, people would ask him out of
curiosity and sometimes with sarcasm "What are you doing?" Hadhrat
Shaykh would reply "I am playing, I am an entertainer, come to me and I
shall show you how, then you too can play this game.”
was bestowed with many visions and Karaamaat (miracles) but his greatest
karaamat was his steadfastness upon the Sunnah of RasulAllah Salallahu
Shaykh was travelling by train and a fellow passenger on the train who
was a drunkard, a drug addict and a fornicator who neglected Salaah,
happened to sit in the Shaykh's company. Before the journey was over
this person became a Dhaakir and was drowned in the remembrance of Allah
would mention this story and would say, "This is the way in which the
dhikr of Allah purifies a person."
Shaykh was riding on a horse. As the horse was strolling along, the
horse's leg knocked against a person who was lying on the ground. When
this happened the Shaykh stopped, dismounted and said to the person
"Please forgive me, I am sorry that my horse has hurt you." The person
replied "No, I should be grateful to you, because when the leg of your
horse touched me, my heart began to busy itself in Allah's dhikr. I find
myself to be very fortunate indeed."
once said "It was my habit that I would go out and look for firewood to
be used for cooking langar (food) for the people who would come for
dhikr. One day I came across a small twig and, seeing that it was too
small, I did not pick it up. Allah Ta'ala gave that twig the strength to
speak and it spoke saying 'Allah Ta'ala says that He will reward a
person for his every good deed, even if it is equivalent to that of a
particle. But you have not even considered me an equal to a particle.'
Upon hearing the twig I felt very embarrassed and picked it up with the
another occasion the Shaykh said "I was once collecting date stones for
the Khatam. I left one date stone because it was not smooth and out of
shape with the rest. The date stone addressed me and said 'O beautiful
one! If I am unsightly then it is my Creator who has made me like this,
and you find faults in me. If you have the power then why not make me
beautiful, as you would like me to be'." The Shaykh then said "Upon
hearing the words of the date stone I began to cry, I kissed the
date-stone and placed it with the rest and whenever I would come across
it during a Khatam I would kiss it again."
One day a
large number of people learnt the dhikr from the Shaykh and repented
from their sins. At night on the same day, Shaytaan appeared in his
dream and said to him "Why do you have so much enmity for me, that you
have stolen from me people who have been my mureeds for many years." The
Shaykh replied " Insha'Allah I shall rescue many more people from your
said "One day I was reciting the Qur'an and my hands were placed on my
foot. A heard a voice from the Lord saying "When you are reciting the
Qur'an, do not place your hands on such a place." From that day onwards
whenever I recite the Qur'an I cover my feet with a cloth before doing
afternoon the Shaykh had a dream in which he heard the recitation: "man
yuti ishaykh faqad ataa arRasool wa man yuti arRasoola faqad ataa'
Allah." (He who followed his Shaykh has followed the Rasool Salallahu
alayhi wasallam and he who followed the Rasool Salallahu alayhi wasallam
has obeyed Allah).
Shaykh would do dhikr in a gathering upon hard land that needed
ploughing, many large and hard stones would just crumble and become fine
earth. Hadhrat Shaykh would smile and say "Allah has saved this old man
from ploughing the fields and made my work easy for me!"
It is a
saying of the Shaykh that "Four things elevate a person: (1) Abundance
of dhikr, (2) Adherence to the Sunnah. (3) Refraining from sins and (4)
connection with his Shaykh."
He also said
" When I first decided to look for a Shaykh, I had a dream for 15 nights
on the run in which I would see a man who was not upon the Shari'ah. I
realised that this was Shaytaan. So beware! If you wish to find a Shaykh
then make sure that he is a person of the Shari'ah for if he is not then
he can be worse for you than Shaytaan."
Shaykh said "The friends of Allah put great stress on doing the dhikr of
Allah, because the benefits of it are everlasting and permanent."
Shaykh stated "If you wish to understand the Qur'an, then adopt Taqwa."
journey to Delhi was one of Tableegh. Hadhrat Shaykh fell very ill and
in the state of illness was escorted back to Miskeenpur Shareef. On
Thursday and the last night before the month of Ramadhan 1354 Hijri
(28th November 1935) at the age of 84 Hadhrat Shaykh left this finite
world for that which lasts forever. Hadhrat Shaykh's shrine is situated
in Miskeenpur Shareef, which is in the district of Muzaffargarh. The
Khulafa of the Shaykh numbered 66, the light of Allah's dhikr continues
to spread across the world due to the efforts of these pious people.
There is a
yearly gathering in Miskeenpur Shareef. Thousands of people attend this
gathering and obtain spiritual Fayz.
Hadhrat Abdul Ghaffar Ra (Urf Peer Mitah)
Allah Sanctify His Soul
Hadrat Abdul Gahfar ra origin from Hadrat
Ali. His family came from Arabia Born in village of Shujah Abad nearby
Jalal Pure Piro, state of Multan. He has only basic education. His
father is Hadrat Moulana Yar Mohamamd ra (wali kamil). His learn Arabic
from Maolana Imamudin rh in town called Uch Sharif. Then he bait in the
hand of Hafiz Fatah Mohammad Ra Jalal Puri (wali kamil) which have the
highest darajat in Tarikat Qadirah. Hafiz Fatah Mohammad Ra Jalal Puri
known for his speech and tabligh that very powerful.
After Hafiz Fatah Mohammad Ra Jalal Puri (wali
kamil) died, Hadrat Abdul Gahfar ra searching everywhere to find murshid
kamil for him to complete his ilmu. He found Hadrat Fahzal Ali Qurashi
ra (wali kamil). Hadrat Fahzal Ali Qurashi ra expert in Tarikat
Naqshbandia. Hadrat Abdul Gahfar appointed as Khalifah and as an
assistant for Hadrat Fahzal Ali Qurashi ra. At the same time also Hadrat
Abdul Gahfar be father-in-law to Hadrat Fazal Ali Qurashi. Hadrat
Fazal Ali Qurashi send him to Sindh, Pakistan for dakwah. And in village
called Rahmat Pure Sharif state of Larkhana Sind, Hadrat Abdul Ghafar ra
built masjid and village which were then be a markaz rohani. So many
people there get faiz rohani from Hadrat Abdul Gahfar ra. The whole
village including children, women, old and young do the solat jemaah
five times a day and women are wearing hijab.
Hadrat Abdul Gahfar ra also write a poem.
His is very good in qalam marifat and write so many letters to his
murid (pupil) and his khalifah (which is also known as maktubat ghafaria
and qalam gahfaria). Hadrat Abdul Gahfar ra also appointed two Prime
Khalifah that are Hadrat Allah Bhaksh and Hadrat Sardar Ahmad. Hadrat
Abdul Gahfar ra have more then 300 khalifah and unlimited number of
murid pupils all around the world. Hadrat Abdul Gahfar ra also have a
lot keramat and his prayer always makbul. Hadrat Abdul Gahfar ra died on
8th Syabaan at Rahmat Pure Sharif Larkhan. His tomb (makam)
open for public.
Hadhrat Muhammad Sardar Ahmad Naqshbandi (RA)
Allah Sanctify His Soul
Muhammad Sardar Ahmad Naqshbandi is Famous naqshabandi shaikh of Panjab
hadrat Sardar Ahmad Born in Panjab Pakistan on 30th June 1930.He complet
his school and college education from Lahore.He got religious education
mostly from his master Hazrat Khawja Muhammad Abdual Ghaffar(R.A) known
as Pir Mitha Sain. who was very dear to Hazrat Qureshi Sahib RA.. Hazrat
Peer Mitha Saeen was a great religious scholar and a poet.Pir Mitha Sain
made him his deputy (Khalifa) and his successor.Thousands of people are
attached with Hadrat Sahib and became good Muslims.He is a Perfect
Knower (ARIF Kamil, Muqammal & Akmal nurul
huda Sheikh) in Sufism and accomplished in asceticism.31th
of Jan 2016.
Hazrat Sardar Ahmad led these villages to
show that Islam is a religion whose all teachings are practicable. It is
a complete code of life. One of such villages is Rahmat Pure
Bucheki that is the central place (Markaz-Darbar) of Rohani
Tulba Jamat Sardaria. Thousands of people have learnt to live their
lives according to the teachings of Islam. They pray and act as Muslim
individually and collectively in their lives.
Hadhrat Muhamood Ul Hassan Sahib (Shibzada )May
he and his family live long
Of Jamat Islahul
Officinaly installation of sucsessor head of jamat sardaria naqshbandia
by Hadrat Sahib on 27 Th Nov 2012 Hazrat Mahmud is the son of hazrat
sahib he is vary hambel and nice person he have permition to give zikr
avry one and also he is traditional doctor nowadays he is very active in
tabligh and taking cear of khanga sardaria darbar hazrat peer mintah in
panjab thos off sick can contect him by mobil phon or email His mission
is to convey the message of Allah and his beloved Prophet Hazrat
Muhammad (Peace be Upon Him) to nook and corner of the world. Mobil
Establising Religious Institutions
The Routine of
Hazart shahib to attend the tablighi program around the pakistan withen
1oth night of the Month is Bucheki .
17th night of the Month is Faisalabad.
20th night of the Month is Farooq Abad.
24th night of the Month is Lahore.
There is network of institutions
established by Hazrat Sardar Ahmad and his followers (disciples), where
knowledge and training go hand in hand. Teachers and students aare
accustomed to five times prayers, night prayers (Tahajud), halqas
(gatherings) for remembrance of Allah the Almighty. Moreover they are
conducive to turban (Imama shareef), miswak (wooden form of toothbrush
used by Prophet Muhammad sallalahoalleyehywasalam) and other necessities
of Islamic mysticism (Tasawuf).
Hadrat Sardar Ahmad & Hadrat Allah Bukhsh (ra)
are class made and learning study under sohabat of hadrat Abdul
Hadhrat Allah Bukhsh Mujaddidi
Allah Sanctify His Soul
Hazrat Allah Bukhsh
was born in Sindh, Pakistan on 10th March 1910. He acquired his school
education and passed internal examination of Sindhi language. He got
religious education mostly from Maulana Raza Muhammad sahib of Warah who
after wards migrated to Saudi Arabia and passed away there.
During his student life, Hazrat Allah
Bukhsh attached himself ritually to a famous Naqshbandi Shaikh Hazrat
Fazal Ali Qureshi of Miskeenpur Sharif of Punjab. After the death of
Hazrat Qureshi Sahib Hazrat Allah Buksh had ritual relationship with
Hazrat Khawja Muhammad Abdual Ghaffar
known as Pir Mitha Sain who was very dear to Hazrat Qureshi Sahib .
Hazrat Peer Mitha Saeen was a great religious scholar and a poet. Seeing
the God gifted qualities of Hazrat Allah Bukhsh , Pir Mitha Sain made
him his deputy (Khalifa) and his successor. Thousands of people were
attached to Hazrat Allah Bukhsh (Sohna Saeen) and became good Muslims.
Hazrat Sohna Sain preached Islam all his life. He passed away on 12 Dec
The services of Hazrat Sohna S'ain
towards Islam and Islamic mysticism (Tassawuf) may be classified as:
Establishing Exemplary Villages
Establising Religious Institutions
Hazrat Sohna S'ain led these villages
to show that Islam is a religion whose all teachings are practicable. It
is a complete code of life. One of such villages is Allah Abad
Sharif that is the central place (Markaz-Darbar) of Jamait
Islah-ul-Muslmeen. Thousands of people have learnt to live their lives
according to the teachings of Islam. They pray and act as Muslim
individually and collectively in their lives.
There is network of institutions
established by Hazrat Sohna S'ain
his followers (disciples), where knowledge and training go hand in hand.
Teachers and students aare accustomed to five times prayers, night
prayers (Tahajud), halqas (gatherings) for remembrance of Allah the
Almighty. Moreover they are conducive to turban (Imama shareef), miswak
(wooden form of toothbrush used by Prophet Muhammad
sallalahoalleyehywasalam) and other necessities of Islamic mysticism (Tasawuf).
Muhammad Shafiq (Malaysia)
Hadrat Haji Riaz Sindu
May he and his family live
Khalifa Hazrat Riaz Sindu
Sahib is one of famous Khalifa of hazrat sahib he is
murid with hazrat sinc 36 years he is qualified in low
LLB. now he is working in leagel section of HR
Department of SNGPL. Lahor Pakistan He is a patient
saint. He listens to the problems and grievances of
hazrat sahib followers and people with a keen interest.
He spend his whole time, days and nights among hazrat
sahib followers and lovers of Hazrat Sahib +923334865296
Hadrat Haji Riaz Sahib Relationship:
Hadhrat Sahib's Murid Khalifa Since:
35 years Nationality:
Pakistan Age: 52
Previous Employment: working
with Sui Gas Pakistan Lahore as leagel adviser
Hobbies & Interests:
Others Khalifa Ikram Of Hazrat Sahib
Hadrat Ihsan Sahib(Lahore)
Hadrat Ifitikhar Sahib (Rawalpindi)
Hadrat Abdul Khaliq (Markaz)
Hadrat Saleem Sahib (Uk:www.zikr.co.uk)
Hadrat Tahir Sahib (Lahore)
Hadrat Maulana Allah Dita Naqshbandi (Pakistan Farooq Abad)
May their blessings always remain
Mission & Team Of Jamat Sardaria
shaikh of Panjab Hadhrat Mohammad Sardar Ahmad Mujaddidi Ghafari is
much worrie for character of muslims and their awarness with Islam. In
the result of his great thinking, struggle and councling with learned
scholars of Islam "Jamaat Sardaria " came in the form of an orgnization.
Jamait Sardaria is
a world wide religious and reformative Muslim organization. It preaches
Muslim brotherhood and helps its member to practise Islam in its true
spirit through love and respect. Its main characteristics are to adopt
Islamic way of life by establishing religious institutions, reformative
centers and arranging gatherings for zikrullah, remembrance of Allah the
almighty. Every individual member of Jamait Sardaria begins with himself
or herself, his or her family members and neighbors.
leading the jamat Sardaria it self and Team of Jamat doing the great
mission Now many islamic schools are affiliated with jamaat and
producing scholars, huffaz e Quran and Imams in a large number.
Jamaat is actively
involved in preaching and building the character of common muslims.
Thousands of people have benefited and now spending their lives
according to islamic teachings. Their lives have become samples of
sunnah of The Holy Prophet Muhammad .
Muhammad Sardar Ahmad has devoted himself completely to the sacred cause
of propagation of Islam after the death of his Shaikh Hadrat Abdul
Ghafar ra (Peer Mitha Sain). He is always busy in preaching and
propagating Islam. And Team Of jamat Sardaria also..
Hadrat Ihsan Sahib
Hadrat Abdul Khaliq
Hadrat Saleem Sahib
Hadrat Tahir Sahib
Hadrat Haji Riaz
Hadrat Molvi Allah
Faqeer Shafiq Daif
Hadrat Ihsan Sahib
Ihsan Sahib Relationship:
Hadhrat Sahib's Son in Law Khalifa Since:
30 years Nationality:
Pakistan Age: 55
Qualification: Alim & other
Aducation Previous Employment:
Bhawalpure as officer Hobbies &
Interests: Tabligh Sunnah.
Hadrat Ihsan Sahib is wali akmal and also son-in-law to
Hadrat Sardar Ahmad. He do the dakwah in area of Punjab, Bahalpure and
other places in Pakistan. Have a good characteristic quality especially
in ehsan and soft. He always followed his father-in-law. Now he lived in
Lahore and very humble
Hadrat Iftikhar Sahib
Hadrat Iftikhar Sahib Relationship:
Hadhrat Sahib's Son in Law Khalifa Since:
27 years Nationality:
Pakistan Age: 50
Qualification: Alim & other
Aducation Previous Employment:
Traditional Medicine Doktor
Hobbies & Interests: Tabligh
Hadrat Iftikhar Sahib is wali akmal and also son-in-law to
Hadrat Sardar Ahmad. He do the dakwah in area of Punjab, Rawalpindi and
Peshawar and other places in Pakistan. Have a good characteristic
quality especially in ehsan and soft. He always followed his
father-in-law. Now he lived in Lahore and very humble
Hadrat Sahibzada Abdul
Hadrat Abdul Khaliq Sahib Relationship:
Hadhrat Sahib's Son Khalifa Since:
27 years Nationality:
Pakistan Age: 38
Qualification: Alim & other
Aducation Hobbies & Interests:
Hadrat Abdul Khaliq Sahib is wali akmal and also son of Hadrat Sardar
Ahmad. He do the dakwah in area of Punjab, Sialkote Faisalabad Lahore
and Peshawar and other places in Pakistan. Have a good characteristic
quality especially in ehsan and soft. He always followed his
father-in-law. Now he lived in Lahore and very humble
Hadrat Tahir Sahib
Hadrat Tahir Sahib Relationship:
Hadhrat Sahib's Greand Son Nationality:
Pakistan Age: 25
Qualification: Mba Hobbies & Interests:
Hadrat Tahir Sahib is wali akmal and also Greand son of Hadrat Sardar
Ahmad. He is vary Yang He do the dakwah in area of Punjab, Sialkote
Faisalabad and other places in Pakistan. Have a good characteristic
quality especially in ehsan and soft. He always followed his
Greand father. Now he lived in Lahore and very humble
Hadrat Haji Riaz born in Farooq in 1956. Expert in law
because he is a lawyer, very humble and always like to develop islam. He
is the one who give new technology idea to the Jamat Sardaria. His very
hard working in uniting all the Islamic people and may allah granted in
what he wish.
Hadrat Molvi Allah Dita
Hadrat Molvi Allah Dita Sahib Relationship:
Hadhrat Sahib's Murid Khalifa Since:
32 years Nationality:
Pakistan Age: 52
Previous Employment: 0
Hobbies & Interests:
Hadrat Maulana Allah Dita born in 1956 at Farooq Abad
Kampung Saca Soda. He has no education but with keramat of Hadrat Sahib
he has become alim & well-known in Farooq.he study with Hadrat Sahib
since age of 32 years old. He is an Imam in Masjid Saca Soda, accredited
to answer any questions in Islamic religion, accredited to give a nikah,
love to people and a very humble kind of person.
was founded in East Asia in 1958 and named after our Master Hadhrat
Muhammad Sardar Ahmad Naqshbandi.
Naqshbandia Sardari is one of the world's leading
in Sufism and has several hundred thousand disciples all over the world.
Due to technological advances in the past few decades a greater number
of disciples have joined from countries outside the Asia continent.
We pride ourselves on providing an unprescedented level of help &
support to our students who are on their path towards friendship with
Training of long distance disciples is done through a combination of
e-mail/phone communications, training videos/audios/manuals, worksheets
and various other audio/visual presentations.
Our efforts are ongoing and we always seek new innovative ways to help
communicate our teachings